Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 9

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1
Wavelet Decomposition Levels

0

C1

9
8
7

Pz

6
5
4
3
2
1
-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0.5

1

Time (s)
(b)

Amplitude in Microvolts

Wavelet Decomposition Levels

3

Pz

Time (s)

2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-1

-0.5

0
Time (s)
(c)

(a)

Figure 3. the movement-direction-dependent, normalized Snr. (b) the Snr and (c) the trial-averaged temporal

activity for electrode Pz low-pass-filtered at 1 Hz [35].

paradigm. The low-pass-filtered EEG (<1 Hz) was used to
reconstruct hand-movement velocity using a linear decoding model, and further source localization analyses indicated the highest contributions to decoding from contralateral
precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and inferior parietal
lobule, recorded 60 ms premovement, as indicated in Figure 4. In [48], researchers applied a continuous 2-D drawing
task experiment to investigate the corresponding EEG activations and reported significant contributions from 0.1-
4-Hz, and 24-28-Hz bands in premotor, posterior parietal,
and occipital areas was reported.
The kinematics of movement intention using a targetreaching task in virtual 3-D space [49], natural grasping
movement [50], center-out hand movements [51], and selfpaced and self-initiated reaching movement [52] was
studied using EEG. Various modes of EEG signal analysis, such as linear decoding models using low-pass-filtered EEG, phase-locking of low-frequency EEG, and TF
information of EEG were explored. The movement
kinematics during natural task, such as filling a glass
of water, was studied in [53] using filtered EEG
(<1 Hz) and (0.5-2 Hz). The 2-D hand-movement speed
coordinates and trajectory were decoded using waveletCSP-based predictors, and the results were reported in
[37] and [55]. An adaptive estimation of the same parameters was reported in [88] using Kalman filters, and the
results obtained are indicated in Figure 5. In [55] and [56],

the involvement of low-frequency EEG from motor, premotor, and parietal areas pre- and postmovement was
indicated. Reported in [57] and [58] was the use of a linear decoder model on low-pass-filtered EEG (<1 Hz) to
decode the velocity of the hand and elbow, among others.
The applicability of linear decoding models in stroke
patients to reconstruct one-dimensional hand-movement
velocity was demonstrated in [59]. The parameters of an
imagined rhythmic movement were studied in [60] using
the filtered EEG (0.4-0.6 Hz). Nonlinear regression models were also reported in decoding movement kinematics
to enable processing of high-frequency EEG and to
improve regression performance [61]. In [61], a particle
filter model to decode 2-D and 3-D hand-movement position, and in [62] a kernel ridge regression to decode 3-D
hand-movement velocities were reported. In [63], the
hand joint angular velocities as well as synergistic trajectory during a 3-D reach-to-grasp task were decoded
using EEG. The applicability of EEG alpha and beta band
powers, from planning, execution, and combined time
segments, to predict peak hand-movement speed and
acceleration was studied in [64].
Movement of Localized Limb Areas
The noninvasive BCI research on localized areas of
upper limbs, such as, elbow, wrist, finger, and shoulder,
and lower limbs, such as, hip, knee, and foot, mainly
O c tob e r 2016

IEEE SyStEmS, man, & CybErnEtICS magazInE

9



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - Cover2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 4
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 5
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 6
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 7
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 8
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 9
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 10
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 11
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 12
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 13
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 14
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 15
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 16
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 17
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 18
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 19
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 20
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 21
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 22
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 23
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 24
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 25
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 26
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 27
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 28
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 29
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 30
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 31
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - 32
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - Cover3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2016 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/smc_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0717
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0117
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0716
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0116
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_1015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0715
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/systems_man_cybernetics_0115
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com