Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 28

costs and improving occupant comThe IoT and Maintenance of
fort, health, and productivity [4], [5].
the Existing Equipment and
Facility managers in
However, distributed and conControl Infrastructure
nected sensing in buildings withFacility managers in commercial
commercial buildings
out robust data analytics tools and
buildings are responsible for the
are responsible for
methods has also become a major
maintenance of many sensors,
the maintenance
problem; more sensors and actuameters, actuators, a nd equ ip tors mean a larger number of
ment. For example, the facilities
of many sensors,
components and equipment that
management team responsible
meters, actuators,
can fail and need to be diagnosed
for maintaining nearly a half-miland maintained. In this article, we
lion control points in a university
and equipment.
discuss the current state and
campus in Ottawa, Canada, comfuture challenges in using conprises fewer than ten full-time
nected and distributed sensing in
employees. Through the analysis
buildings to improve building operation and maintenance.
of their operator logbooks, we identified that they
respond to roughly 3,500 heating, ventilation, and airValue Proposition of the IoT to
conditioning (HVAC) equipment or control infrastrucFacility Managers and Homeowners
ture-related emergency work orders every year. Aside
A misconception of connected and distributed sensing,
from being a considerable fraction of the operational
particularly for the residential sector, is that the IoT is
activ ities, faults in H VAC equipment a nd control
simply for turning on lights and starting coffee makers
infrastructure represent great uncertainty in a buildfrom our mobile devices. As highlighted in a recent suring's energy and comfort performance. It is estimated
vey [6], the true potential of the IoT has yet to be disthat 30-50% of the energy used in commercial buildings
covered. Ongoing research efforts have demonstrated
is wasted due to improper maintenance of the HVAC
that connected and distributed sensing can help better
equipment and control infrastructure [7], [8]. In line with
maintain existing equipment and control infrastructhis, when we analyzed the operator logbooks for the
ture; more effectively control indoor climate; and make
aforementioned university campus, we obser ved a
well-informed decisions for envelope, equipment, and
noticeable correlation between the HVAC work-order
control infrastructure retrofits. Figure 1 provides an
intensity (WOI) and the annual energy use intensity
overview of the commonly used methods to assimilate
(EUI)-at least in the academic and administrative
the data from the distributed and connected sensor netbuildings (see Figure 2). It is therefore essential to equip
works in buildings.
facility managers with the appropriate -a nalytical tools to

Internet:
Weather Forecasts
Utility Rates
Sensors:
Daylight, Temperature,
Airflow, Relative Humidity, CO2,
Occupancy, Door/
Window Position
Meters:
Heating, Cooling,
Lighting
Actuators:
Valves, Dampers,
Fans, Pumps,
Lighting/Blinds

Maintain
Fault Detection and Diagnostics
Performance Benchmarking
Prognostics
Operator Data Visualization
Occupant Data Interaction

Web
HVAC
Lighting
Access
Fire Safety

Computer Scientists/
Data Scientists

Data Analytics

Control
Model Predictive Control
Adaptive Controls
Demand Response
Retrofit
Remote Auditing for Envelope
Virtual Sensors/Meters

Domain Experts in HVAC, Lighting,
and Envelope/Data Scientists

Figure 1. An overview of the commonly used methods to assimilate the data from the distributed and

connected sensor networks in buildings.

28	

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Oc tob e r 2017



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - Cover2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 4
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Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - Cover3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - Cover4
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