Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 32

inappropriate temperature setpoints [2]. For buildings
the early 2000s. Based on our experience reviewing
without permanent data archivers, the data analytics
numerous building energy audit documents in buildings
solutions need to be recursive, and the algorithms should
constructed prior to 1990, the control infrastructure at
be designed to be embedded inside controllers. For
the zone level generally remains pneumatic, while the
buildings with permanent data archivers, batch data
system-level control infrastructure was upgraded to diganalytics solutions can be used. In other words, with
ital controls. Digital control networks installed prior to
permanent data archivers, the data analyses can be con2000 (before BACnet's wider adoption [58]) tend to sufducted outside the computationally limited building confer from interoperability issues due to proprietary comtrollers. Thus, instead of using recursive state-parameter
munication protocols. Thus, in buildings constructed
estimation algorithms such as the extended [49],
earlier than 2000 (representing roughly 70% of the curunscented [60], ensemble Kalman filters [23], computarent building stock), the connectivity of zone- and systionally more-expensive batch
tem-level sensors and actuators
data assimilation approaches can
and the Internet will remain a
be employed (e.g., nonlinear optichallenge [19]. Arguably, for the
mization with sequential quaresidential sector, the integration
The controller trend
dratic programming).
of domestic appliances and their
logs are temporary
built-in sensors will be even more
challenging, as there is no wellThe Need for
storage mediums to
established equivalent of BACnet
Trained Personnel
maintain automation
for homes [59].
In parallel, the data generated by
the emerging connected and disdata locally in each
tr ibuted sensing technologies
Fragmented Data
controller for up to a
need to be transformed into useStorage Methods
few weeks.
ful applications, as discussed in
There are four common ways to
the "Value Proposition of the IoT
store operations data: digitized
to Facility Managers and Homework-order logbooks, controller
owners" section. We require es--
trend logs, permanent data ar--
chivers, and cloud servers. The -operator logbooks are
tablished -m ethods to transform the operations data
the traditional form of information keeping. They coninto such -applications (e.g., fault detection and diagnostain invaluable information about maintenance routics and MPCs). These methods should be tailored so
tines and the failure patterns of building systems and
that domain knowledge in building systems and data
components. However, they are seldom integrated into
analytics are used in tandem. The skills required in
the BACnets. Their analysis with concur rent sensor
trained personnel are expected to cover HVAC systems
and their control, indoor environmental quality, occudat a c a n be u sef u l i n fau lt d
- etection, diagnostics
and prognostics applications, and developing prevenpant comfort, data mining, inverse -modeling, statistics,
tive maintenance strategies. The controller trend logs
and probability.
are temporary storage mediums to maintain automation data locally in each controller for up to a few
Conclusion
weeks. In some cases, the trend logs in each controller
Research efforts on the IoT in buildings have demonare sent to a permanent data archiver. Based on two
strated that the data gathered from BACnets represent
building portfolios (121 buildings) with which we are
great potential to optimize the way we operate our buildworking, only approximately 10% of the buildings have
ings. Simply put, we can deploy fault detection and diagdata archivers. However, this percentage is expected to
nostics plus prognostics methods to facilitate the
increase substantially in the near future. In most of the
equipment and control infrastructure maintenance probuildings with permanent data archivers, the data are
cedures. We can employ innovative indoor climate conalso sent to a cloud server.
trol methods that adapt the equipment control to a
A problem that we commonly encountered is that,
building's thermophysical characteristics, utility pricing,
often, many sensors and actuators are not recorded as
weather forecasts, and occupancy and occupant behavtrend logs in controller databases. As a result, valuable
ior patterns. Finally, we may conduct building audits
data may not be archived. An example of a useful, but
remotely and continuously to guide envelope and equiprarely trended, data type is the keypress logs from occument retrofit decisions.
pants' interactions with lighting and thermostats. These
However, there are numerous technical and nontechdata can be used in identifying sections of a building
nical challenges. Case studies and real-world implementhat cause discomfort-i.e., if occupants in a section of a
tations are needed to demonstrate the capabilities of
building interact with their thermostats more frequently
data-driven solutions so that the decision makers will
than others, this can be interpreted as an indication of
build confidence in them. Users' security and privacy
32	

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE Oc tob e r 2017



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