Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 7

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waves, among others. Biometric systems rely on a more
secure "something we are" policy rather than the "something we know" or "something we have" policies used in
conventional personal recognition schemes such as a user
identification feature, personal identification number,
access cards, and more [2]. Traditional methods of user
passwords and personal details as well as bank cards,
smart cards, and security tokens are simple and reasonable
methods to achieve -security. But, unfortunately, they are
not immune to malicious attacks [3]. Securing tokens is a
challenge, and they are not always convenient to carry.
Hence, for enhancing performance, biometric traits such as
fingerprints, voice, palm prints, the face, hand geometry,
	

heart signals, and odor have been used in current real-time
automatic person-recognition systems [4]. Although most of
these techniques have been proven sufficiently accurate,
they are not free from various sorts of abuse, attacks, and
theft, especially in today's ubiquitous web-enabled environment. Fingerprint technology, which has been extensively
studied and shown to be scientifically unique across the
entire human population, can be easily falsified using artificially generated fingerprints known as gummy fingers
[5]. Unfortunately, fingerprints can also be captured by
force. Another popular biometric system that depends on
one's face can be easily spoofed by printed face models [6].
As a result, it is highly desirable to explore innovative
O c tob e r 2017

IEEE SYSTEMS, MAN, & CYBERNETICS MAGAZINE	

7


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017

Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - Cover1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - Cover2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 1
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 2
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 4
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 5
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 6
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 7
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 8
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 9
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 10
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 11
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 12
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 13
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 14
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 15
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 16
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 17
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 18
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 19
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 20
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 21
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 22
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 23
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 24
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 25
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 26
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 27
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 28
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 29
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 30
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 31
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 32
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 33
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 34
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 35
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 36
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 37
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 38
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 39
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 40
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 41
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 42
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 43
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - 44
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - Cover3
Systems, Man & Cybernetics - October 2017 - Cover4
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