IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 23

School Bus 1.0

Garbage Truck 0.99

Punching Bag 1.0

Snowplow 0.92

Motor Scooter 0.99

Parachute 1.0

Bobsled 1.0

Parachute 0.54

Fire Truck 0.99
(a)

School Bus 0.98
(b)

Fireboat 0.98
(c)

Bobsled 0.79
(d)

FIGURE 1. A deep learning algorithm prediction (probabilities following the algorithm's label) for typical road vehicle poses in a 3D
simulator (a) and for unusual poses (b)-(d) [1].

This previous section focused on
the concept of meaningful human
control and dynamic targeting, but
there are additional lessons to be
learned by examining autonomous
weapons and static targeting, dis-
cussed in the following section.

lined that because of serious flaws
in computer vision algorithms and
high uncertainty, human control is
necessary due to the inability of an
autonomous system to perform pre-
dictably and reliably. However, such
operations are also prone to human
error due to their dynamic nature.
A different picture emerges when
looking at missions that prosecute
static targets, like the Chinese Embas-
sy mission discussed earlier. These
missions are typically planned days,

Low Uncertainty Engagements
Are Very Much in the Realm of
Autonomous Weapons Today
For dynamic targeting in offensive
missions, the previous section out-
DECEMBER 2019

∕

IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY MAGAZINE

if not weeks in advance with teams
of analysts and weapons special-
ists evaluating multiple courses of
action. Unlike the pilot in a dynamic
targeting scenario, the pilot asking
for the target is not the person who
picks the target (this is typically a
team of people), nor is the person
who authorizes the target (which is
a senior official who consults with
a team of lawyers). The pilot of the
plane that bombs a predesignated
t arget simply confirms that the

23



IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019

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