IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 41

and confidence in, and support for human operated
drones compared to Autonomous Weapon Systems.
However, surprisingly they also assign more blame (Figure 4) to the actions of human operated drones than to
the actions of Autonomous Weapon Systems. The perception of harm, fairness, and expectations of actions
of human operated drones and Autonomous Weapon
Systems are equal.

Study 2
The civilian respondents in Study 2 perceive the human
dignity of the actions of human operated drones and
Autonomous Weapon Systems equally (Figure 5). They
are more anxious about the actions of Autonomous
Weapon Systems in the future than of those taken by
human operated drones (Figure 6). The respondents in
Study 2 have an equal level of trust (Figure 7),

expectations and confidence that human operated
drones and Autonomous Weapon Systems will take the
correct actions in the future. The actions of the human
operated drone and Autonomous Weapon Systems are
considered to cause equally much harm and are seen
as equally fair. The civilian respondents in Study 2
assign more blame to the actions of Autonomous
Weapon Systems than those of human operated
drones (Figure 8). They have more support for human
operated drones than for Autonomous Weapon Systems, especially when human operated drones are
compared to the high agency scenario of Autonomous
Weapon Systems.

Conclusion and Discussion
Our study provides an overview of the various definitions of Autonomous Weapon Systems that are currently

60
40
20
0

72

67

53

Human
Operated
Weapon

Error Bars: +/- 1 SE

Neutral Agency High Agency
Autonomous Autonomous
Weapon
Weapon
Scenario

Mean Trust Value

50
40
30
41
30

30

10
0

Human
Operated
Weapon

Error Bars: +/- 1 SE

Neutral Agency High Agency
Autonomous Autonomous
Weapon
Weapon
Scenario

FIGURE 3. Trust value study 1.

DECEMBER 2019

20
23

10

0

15

Human
Operated
Weapon

Error Bars: +/- 1 SE

18

Neutral Agency High Agency
Autonomous Autonomous
Weapon
Weapon
Scenario

FIGURE 4. Blame value study 1.

FIGURE 2. Anxiety value study 1.

20

Mean Blame Value

30

Mean Human Dignity Value

Mean Anxiety Value

80

40
30
20
29

31

31

10
0

Human
Operated
Drone

Error Bars: +/- 1 SE

Neutral Agency High Agency
Autonomous Autonomous
Weapon
Weapon
Scenario

FIGURE 5. Human dignity value study 2.

∕

IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY MAGAZINE

41



IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019

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