IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 62

However, the reduction of postmatch debate, the creeping use of algorithmic definition in other areas of
human activity, and the potential for diminution of critical thinking skills are all points of serious concern. This
is not an easy dilemma to resolve, and certainly not
necessarily one that can be decided by an algorithm.
Finally, before substituting automated rule interpretation for human endeavor, administrators should very
carefully consider what the original rule was intended to
achieve. The offside rule was originally intended to stop
an unseemly scrum developing in each goalmouth, with
the game reduced to ugly hoofs from one to the other.
The application of the offside rule was never intended to
be a passion-killing narrative destroyer (it can only
dampen the crowd's visceral instinctive reaction to a
goal, and it can only disallow goals) just because someone's toenail was in an offside position (the outcome of
micromeasurement) rather than being, in the opinion
of the referee, someone seeking to gain an unfair
advantage. Moreover, VAR has not removed controversy:
arguments still persist, and if possible the situation has
been made worse with the handball rule now depending
on a context-sensitive interpretation of "unnatural body
position." There remains much to be said in favor of
"jumpers for goalposts"...

Author Information
Rahul Singh, Ankur Ravindra Bodhe, Pranav Kanuparthi,
and Aditya Ananthakrishnan were at RV College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India.
Jeremy Pitt is Professor of Intelligent and Self-Organizing Systems at Imperial College London, U.K. Email: j.
pitt@imperial.ac.uk.

References

[1] D. Graeber, The Utopia of Rules. Melville, 2015.
[2] H. Peyton Young. "Social norms,: in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd ed., S. Durlauf and L. Blume, Eds. Palgrave
Macmillan, 2008.
[3] J. Searle, Speech Acts. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1969.
[4] E. Ostrom, Governing the Commons. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990.
[5] P. Petruzzi, J. Pitt, and D. Busquets, "Electronic social capital for
self-organising multi-agent systems," Trans. Autonomous and
Adaptive Systems, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 13:1-13:25, 2017.
[6] S. Gurunathan, "Hawkeye technology: What is it all about?," Firstpost, Mar. 10, 2011; https://www.firstpost.com/tech/news-analysis/
hawk-eye-technology-what-is-it-all-about-3579465.html.
[7] N. Kumar, "Snickometer - A technology used in cricket," TechnikNOW, Oct. 24, 2017; http://techniknow.com/snickometer-a
-technology-used-in-cricket.
[8] S. Shenoy, "Decision review system: Explaining the technology
behind it," Sportskeeda, Nov. 10, 2016; https://www.sportskeeda
.com/cricket/decision-review-system-explaining-the-technology
-behind-it.
[9] "DRS: 'Hotspot should be removed', says Michael Vaughan," BBC
Sport, Aug. 10, 2013; https://www.bbc.com/sport/cricket/23645802.
[10] D. Middleton, "'Umpire's Call' overhaul for DRS," Cricket Australia, Jul. 3, 2016; https://www.cricket.com.au/news/umpries-call
-drs-lbw-changes-50-per-cent-ball-strike-full-width-of-stumps-icc-annual
-conference/2016-07-03.

62

[11] C. Clarey, "French Open sticks with Umpire's Eye over Hawk-Eye on
clay," NYTimes, Mar. 23, 2016; https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/24/
sports/tennis/french-open-clay-hawk-eye-review-line-judging.html.
[12] A. Kajumba, "'What is VAR? How does it work? What's covered?' Your
guide as controversial calls continue," Daily Mirror, May 19, 2018; https://
www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/news/what-is-var-fa-cup-11814289.
[13] "FIFA World Cup moments: When Frank Lampard's disallowed
goal against Germany provided impetus for goalline technology,"
Firstpost, Jun. 11, 2018; https://www.firstpost.com/sports/fifa-world
-cup-moments-when-frank-lampards-disallowed-goal-against-germany
-provided-impetus-for-goalline-technology-4504535.html.
[14] The International Football Association Board, Laws of the
game: Law 11- Offside, 2018-2019.
[15] Fédération Internationale de Football Association, Laws of the
game: Law 11- Offside, 2015-2016.
[16] L. Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. Basic, 1999.
[17] R. Singh, P. Kanuparthi, A. Bodhe, A. Ananthakrishnan, and J.
Pitt, "Real-Time Offside Offence Determination System and A Method Thereof," IN 201841046250, December 2018.
[18] R. Hoffman, S. Mueller, G. Klein, and J. Litman, "Metrics for
explainable {AI:} Challenges and prospects," CoRR, abs/1812.04608,
2018; http://arxiv.org/abs/1812.04608.
[19] P. Asaro, "AI ethics and predictive policing: From models of
threat to an ethics of care," IEEE Technology and Society Mag., to
be published.
[20] S. Ingle, "Nike's lightning shoes hint at power of technology to
skew elite competition," The Guardian, Jul. 22, 2018; https://www
.theguardian.com/sport/2018/jul/22/nike-shoes-vaporfly-sport.
[21] "17 April 1971: 'Leeds will go mad. They have every right
to,'" The Guardian, Apr.18, 2009; https://www.theguardian.com/
sport/2009/apr/18/ray-tinkler-played-advantage-leeds.
[22] J. Valdano, "I love football because it's the opposite of science:
contradictory, primitive, emotional," The Guardian, Jun. 29, 2018;
https://www.theguardian.com/football/2018/jun/29/jorge-valdano
-love-football-opposite-of-science.
[23] G. Parker, M. Elstyne, and S. Choudary, Platform Revolution.
Norton, 2016.
[24] D. Citron, "Technological due process," Washington Univ. Law
Rev., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1249 -1313, 2007.
[25] C. O'Neil, Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data
Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy. Crown, 2016.
[26] A. Vasalou, A. Hopfensitz, and J. Pitt, "In praise of forgiveness:
Ways for repairing trust breakdowns in one-off online interactions,"
Int. J. Human-Computer Studies, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 466-480, 2008.
[27] M. Sergot, F. Sadri, R. Kowalski, F. Kriwaczek, P. Hammond, and
H. Cory, "The British Nationality Act as a logic program," Commun.
ACM, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 370-386, 1986.
[28] D. Kurka, J. Pitt, P. Lewis, A. Patelli, and A. Ekárt, "Disobedience
as a Mechanism of Change," in Proc. SASO 2018, 2018, pp. 1-10.
[29] D. Ariely. The (Honest) Truth about Dishonesty: How We Lie
to Everyone--Especially Ourselves. HarperCollins, 2013.
[30] S. Zuboff, "Big other: Surveillance capitalism and the prospects
of an information civilization," J. Information Technology, vol. 30,
no. 1, pp. 75-89, 2015.
[31] K. Michael and M. Michael, "Implementing 'namebers' using
micrchip implants: The black box beneath the skin," in This Pervasive Day, J. Pitt, Ed. IC Press, 2012, pp. 163-206.
[32] N. Stevens and J. Wernimont,"Seeing 21st century data bleed
through the 15th century Wound Man," IEEE Technology & Society Mag., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 46-54, 2018.
[33] H. Weisberg, Willful Ignorance. Wiley, 2014.
[34] R. Brooks, "The Seven Deadly Sins of AI predictions," Technology Rev., 2017.
[35] A. Nowak, P. Lukowicz, and P. Horodecki, "Assessing Artificial
Intelligence for humanity," IEEE Technology & Society Mag., vol.
37, no. 4, pp. 26-34, 2018.
[36] A. Diaconescu and J. Pitt, "Technological impacts in sociotechnical communities: Values and pathologies, IEEE Technology
& Society Mag., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 63-71, 2017.
[37] G. Garvey. Rethinking Critical Thinking, Games, Entertainment & Media, 2018.

IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY MAGAZINE

∕

DECEMBER 2019


https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/24/sports/tennis/french-open-clay-hawk-eye-review-line-judging.html https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/24/sports/tennis/french-open-clay-hawk-eye-review-line-judging.html https://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/news/what-is-var-fa-cup-11814289 https://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/news/what-is-var-fa-cup-11814289 https://www.firstpost.com/sports/fifa-world-cup-moments-when-frank-lampards-disallowed-goal-against-germany-provided-impetus-for-goalline-technology-4504535.html https://www.firstpost.com/sports/fifa-world-cup-moments-when-frank-lampards-disallowed-goal-against-germany-provided-impetus-for-goalline-technology-4504535.html https://www.firstpost.com/sports/fifa-world-cup-moments-when-frank-lampards-disallowed-goal-against-germany-provided-impetus-for-goalline-technology-4504535.html http://www.arxiv.org/abs/1812.04608 http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2018/jul/22/nike-shoes-vaporfly-sport http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2018/jul/22/nike-shoes-vaporfly-sport https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2018/jul/22/nike-shoes-vaporfly-sport https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2018/jul/22/nike-shoes-vaporfly-sport https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2009/apr/18/ray-tinkler-played-advantage-leeds https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2009/apr/18/ray-tinkler-played-advantage-leeds http://j.pitt@imperial.ac.uk https://www.firstpost.com/tech/news-analysis/hawk-eye-technology-what-is-it-all-about-3579465.html https://www.firstpost.com/tech/news-analysis/hawk-eye-technology-what-is-it-all-about-3579465.html http://techniknow.com/snickometer-a-technology-used-in-cricket http://techniknow.com/snickometer-a-technology-used-in-cricket https://www.sportskeeda.com/cricket/decision-review-system-explaining-the-technology-behind-it https://www.sportskeeda.com/cricket/decision-review-system-explaining-the-technology-behind-it https://www.sportskeeda.com/cricket/decision-review-system-explaining-the-technology-behind-it https://www.bbc.com/sport/cricket/23645802 https://www.cricket.com.au/news/umpries-call-drs-lbw-changes-50-per-cent-ball-strike-full-width-of-stumps-icc-annual-conference/2016-07-03 https://www.cricket.com.au/news/umpries-call-drs-lbw-changes-50-per-cent-ball-strike-full-width-of-stumps-icc-annual-conference/2016-07-03 https://www.cricket.com.au/news/umpries-call-drs-lbw-changes-50-per-cent-ball-strike-full-width-of-stumps-icc-annual-conference/2016-07-03

IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019

Contents
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - Cover1
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - Cover2
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 1
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - Contents
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 3
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 4
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 5
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 6
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 7
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 8
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 9
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 10
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 11
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 12
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 13
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 14
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 15
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 16
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 17
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 18
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 19
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 20
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 21
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 22
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 23
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 24
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 25
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 26
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 27
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 28
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 29
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 30
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 31
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 32
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 33
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 34
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 35
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 36
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 37
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 38
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 39
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 40
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 41
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 42
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 43
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 44
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 45
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 46
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 47
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 48
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 49
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 50
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 51
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 52
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 53
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 54
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 55
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 56
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 57
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 58
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 59
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 60
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 61
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 62
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 63
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 64
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 65
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 66
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 67
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 68
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 69
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 70
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 71
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 72
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 73
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 74
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 75
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 76
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 77
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 78
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 79
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 80
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 81
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 82
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 83
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - 84
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - Cover3
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - December 2019 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_december2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_september2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_june2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_march2022
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_december2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_september2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_june2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_march2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_december2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_september2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_june2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_march2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_december2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_september2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_june2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_march2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_december2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_september2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_june2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_march2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_winter2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_fall2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_summer2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_spring2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_winter2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_fall2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_summer2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_spring2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_winter2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_fall2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_summer2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_spring2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_winter2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_fall2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_summer2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_spring2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_winter2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_fall2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_summer2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/technologysociety_spring2013
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com