IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - June 2019 - 25

reality, rail systems lose billions
dollars every year.
tion for the enormous excess in the
concentration of pollutants in the
air of Nigeria is not just traffic emis-
sions, but rather the nature of those
traffic emissions.
In addition, there are more rea-
sons for Nigeria's bad air quality.

Air Pollution in Nigeria

Umuahia

Owerri

Onitsha

Nsukka

Kaduna

Enugu

Afikpo

PM10
PM2.5

Abakaliki

600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Aba

µg/m3

are shown in Figure 5. At the
same time it is flabbergast-
ing to realize that there are
In
only 61 vehicles per capita
in Nigeria [24], which is just
of
7.65% of the rate of motor-
ization in the U.S.
Large numbers of modern private
cars create only a very slight amount
of pollutants. The pollution is main-
ly generated by defective vehicles,
leaded fuel, and fuel mixed with oils
that are unacceptable in developed
countries. Therefore, the explana-

lle-lfe

PM10 [20]. The Europeans are more
cautious with a threshold of 40 for
PM10 [21]. The threshold of 25 is
accepted worldwide as the thresh-
old of PM2.5.
In the United States, despite the
relatively high rate of motorization,
the average concentration of air
pollution in the 10 most populous
U.S. cities is well below the thresh-
old. The concentrations of pollut-
ants published by the World Health
Organization [22] for these cities are
detailed in Figure 3. The number of
vehicles per capita published by the
U.S. Federal Highway Administration
[23] is detailed in Figure 4. The total
number of vehicles per capita in the
U.S. is 797, which is a much higher
number than the typical number of
vehicles per capita in the world. Still
the air in United States cities is rela-
tively less polluted.
On the other hand, in many devel-
oping countries, vehicles have not
been checked properly by environ-
mental regulating authorities. This
leads to increased concentrations
of pollution. We can take for exam-
ple Nigeria which has much higher
concentrations of both PM2.5 and
PM10. Nigeria's pollution statistics

City
FIGURE 5. Air pollution in the 10 most crowded cities in Nigeria.

FIGURE 6. Improper waste treatment in Nigeria.

JUNE 2019

∕

IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY MAGAZINE

25



IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - June 2019

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