IEEE Technology and Society Magazine - Winter 2013 - 49

PPI " ATT ^ b = - .874h, explaining 40% of the variance. This suggests that PPI, when formed with
minimally available information,
can affect a person's ATT.ATT "
ATA has a medium positive relationship ^ b = 0.598h, achieving 90%
of the variance. This suggests that
affordance plays a significant role in
determining salient attitudes towards
an application of a technology. ATA
showed a strong ^ b = 0.873h relationship with ATB, with a variance of
87%, and a very strong relationship
^ b = 1.179h for ATB " BI, which
was expected based on the TPB.
There are a number of similarities between the structural models of
the U.K. and Japanese samples. For
example, the relationship PPI " ATT
is strongly negative for both, which
highlights an intriguing shared
value of privacy, and its influence
on views of the technology. This
was unexpected, as the Japanese
were considered to have differing
views on ideas of privacy. ATB " BI
is also strong for both, which shows
that the same relationship found in
the TPB is effective across different
cultures. There are also a number of
differences between the samples,
including PNC not showing a significant relationship in the U.K.
sample. This raises questions about
the relationship between salient
perceptions of physical invasiveness and social invasiveness in the
U.K. FC did not appear in the U.K.
sample, while ATA did not appear
in the Japanese, suggesting a mixed
response to these measures; which
coincides with the deliberate lack
of information shared. ATT " ATB
is not present in the Japanese sample, suggesting that views toward
the technology it self are of greater
importance in determining attitude
toward behavior, than attitudes
toward application.

Contributions and
Limitations
The main contributions of this work
are in the exploration of British salient
perceptions of a UM system, and

a cross-comparison with data collected in Japan. The results provide
some insight into possible cultural
differences/similarities
regarding
wearable devices. The limitations of
the study center on the hypothetical
introduction of the device, although
the approach allowed participants
to cognitively place the device in
their own work environments. The
sample size and response rate were
undeniably small, limiting the generalizability of the results, but there
were sufficient numbers to conduct a
SEM analysis.

Conclusions
This article presented U.K. salient
perceptions and attitudes towards a
UM system. The paper also made a
cross comparison with data from a
study in Japan, producing intriguing findings that the British found
the device more physically invasive
than the Japanese, a result we did
not anticipate given typical Japanese views towards personal space.
A number of similarities were also
uncovered between the two cultures
centered on the relationship between
PPI " ATT, and ATB " BI.
These results show there are patterns in salient perceptions across
cultures, and provide confidence
that a general predictive model
may be possible with more data.
The differences were centered
on the relationships with FC and
ATA, which suggests a difference
in views on choice and salient perceptions of applications. A better
understanding of these differences
and similarities could lead to more
effective culturally specific UM
technology designs and deployments in the future.

Author Information
Stuart Moran is a research Fellow with the Mixed reality Lab,
University Nottingham, Nottingham, U.K. Email: stuart.moran@
nottingham.ac.uk.
Toyoaki Nishida is Professor
at the Department of Intelligence
Science and Technology, Kyoto

IEEE TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY MAGAZINE

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wINTEr 2013

University, Kyoto, Japan. Email:
nishida@i.kyoto-u.ac.jp.
Keiichi Nakata is a reader in
Social Informatics at the Infomatics research Centre, University
of reading, reading, U.K. Email:
k.nakata@henley.reading.ac.uk.

Acknowledgment
This work was funded by a shortterm research fellowship grant
from the Japanese Society for the
Promotion of Science (JSPS).

References

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