Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 42

Morningstar Conversation The narrow and insular views of the Fed Board of Governors and the New York Federal Reserve Bank are the only views listened to in deciding when and how an emergency loan is being made. Basically, the credit gets booked and the other Reserve Banks are required to eat a pro-rata share of these loans. Walker Todd which is why there is no liquidity in that market. The deeply insolvent institutions want what everyone else calls “toxic assets” because it gives them a chance to climb back if the economy recovers well into solvency. Bergman: Ed, you coined the term “zombie area and Section 13(3) of the Federal Reserve Act. Walker, could you describe the origin of Section 13(3) and its relevance to this crisis? Todd: Most of the actions the Fed has taken banks” in the S&L crisis. What inspired you? Kane: It was just an attempt to make clear to people the dangers of keeping an institution that was deeply insolvent alive, or at least walking. The notion of the zombie is that it would be put in its grave by its creditors if it weren’t for the black magic of government credit support guarantees and loans. These institutions have very distorted incentives, just as the zombies do in the horror movies. They’re looking for things that even might have negative present value but have a possibility of producing good results. It’s a long shot bet to plug a hole in their balance sheet. since the spring of 2008 have been said to be under the authority of Section 13(3) of the Federal Reserve Act. That’s an emergency powers section that was plugged in first around 1932. It gave the Federal Reserve Board of Governors the power in “unusual and exigent circumstances” to make loans directly to individuals, partnerships, and corporations— not just to banks or other financial institutions. It required a positive vote of five members of the board to invoke this authority. It was rarely used during the 1930s because the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was created and made the great bulk of all the loans that this statute was originally contemplated to do. That Section 13(3) authority, in fact, was not used after 1936. Until 1991. In the dark of night during the Senate markup of the FDIC Improvements Act, lobbyists for the investment banks saw to it that Sen. Christopher Dodd introduced an amendment that would waive the statute’s technical collateral requirements, because the statute required collateral of the type eligible for discount at the Federal Reserve— which was short-term trade-related obligations and certain government securities. By and large, investment banks did not hold that kind of collateral, but they had lots of stocks and bonds and other things that were not eligible for discount. So the collateral requirement was changed to any collateral satisfactory to the Federal Reserve Bank, and that meant that investment banks could borrow at the Fed for a change. Now, I opposed that change, and I identified it in an article that was published by the Cleveland Federal Reserve Bank in its Economic Review in the third quarter of 1993. The publication of the article created an internal firestorm. The Board of Governors really came down on me hard for having published it. Years later, we find out why. They wanted to use that power if they had a big enough emergency—as they thought they did once Bear Stearns went down—to make a bailout loan to an investment bank. This stands the entire Federal Reserve Act on its head. The exceptional rule—the emergency power—has now become the regular way of doing things and the quantitatively dominant method of extending credit for the Fed. It’s very bad from a number of perspectives, not the least of which is institutional structure, because it means that the narrow and insular views of the Board of Governors together with the New York Federal Reserve Bank, the entity that’s making these loans, are the only views listened to in deciding when and how an emergency loan is being made. Basically, the credit gets booked and then the other Reserve Banks are required to eat a pro-rata share of these loans through loss-sharing agreements and the like. It’s a process that needs to be stopped. They need to channel all of this out into something The trouble with the zombies is that they ruin the market for everyone else. They’re not looking for solid investments but something that has a chance of a big payoff. They’re willing to pay more for deposits or funding generally than other institutions, so they spread “zombieness.” They make other institutions have trouble earning a living. Todd: It is the dead feeding on the living. Bergman: Martin, you used the words “dubious legal authority” for the Federal Reserve’s lending. Walker’s done a lot of work in that 42 Morningstar Advisor June/July 2009

Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009

Morningstar Advisr - June/July 2009
Contents
New on MorningstarAdvisor.com
Letter from the Editor
Contributors
Is SRI a Relevant Investment Strategy?
A Head for Numbers
Building a Business on SRI
Investment Briefs
The Liquidity Premium
Navigating the SRI Patchwork
Profit and Progress
How the Fed Contributes to Crises
Holding Steady
Appleseed Adds Value to SRI Formula
Four Picks for the Present
Long-Term Investors Can Find Value among Industrials
Higher Yields, Hold the Risk
Bargains in U.S. Industrials
Mutual Fund Analyst Picks
50 Most Popular Equity ETFs
Undervalued Stocks
Most Popular Variable Annuities
New at Morningstar
Talkin’ ‘bout a Revolution
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 47
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Morningstar Advisr - June/July 2009
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Cover2
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Contents
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 2
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 3
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - New on MorningstarAdvisor.com
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 5
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 6
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Letter from the Editor
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Contributors
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 9
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Is SRI a Relevant Investment Strategy?
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 11
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - A Head for Numbers
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 13
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 14
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Building a Business on SRI
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 16
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 17
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Investment Briefs
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 19
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 20
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 21
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 22
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - The Liquidity Premium
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 24
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 25
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 26
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 27
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 28
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 29
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Navigating the SRI Patchwork
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 31
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 32
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 33
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 34
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Profit and Progress
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 36
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 37
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 38
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 39
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - How the Fed Contributes to Crises
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 41
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 42
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 43
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 44
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 45
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 46
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 47
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Holding Steady
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 49
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 50
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 51
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Appleseed Adds Value to SRI Formula
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 53
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 54
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 55
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Four Picks for the Present
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 57
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Long-Term Investors Can Find Value among Industrials
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 59
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 60
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 61
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Higher Yields, Hold the Risk
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 63
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Bargains in U.S. Industrials
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 65
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Mutual Fund Analyst Picks
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 67
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 68
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 69
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 50 Most Popular Equity ETFs
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 71
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Undervalued Stocks
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 73
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 74
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 75
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Most Popular Variable Annuities
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 77
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - 78
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - New at Morningstar
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Talkin’ ‘bout a Revolution
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Cover3
Morningstar Advisor - June/July 2009 - Cover4
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