Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 41

MDD ratios. On the other hand, the highestvolatility quintile experiences an upgrade by about
2 to 3 percentage points. The t-statistics
suggest that the downgrades or upgrades are
more significant in stocks than those in
equity funds.
Beyond Mean Variance

Performance measures and their relative
ranking have an impact on a wide range of
investment-related decisions. Asset returns are not
normally distributed, and investors and asset
managers typically care most about downside risk,
which renders the standard Sharpe ratio an
inadequate performance measure. Moreover,
lower-volatility stocks and equity funds tend to
have lower or negative skewness, which makes an
economically meaningful case to call for
performance measures such as tail-risk-based
Sharpe ratios. It suggests that stocks and
funds that have relatively higher rankings based
on the standard Sharpe ratio can at the same time
have relatively lower rankings based on tail-risk-

based Sharpe ratios. Therefore, investors
should look beyond mean variance to evaluate
low-volatility stocks and funds. For an individual fund, a more negative skewness coupled
with a more positive serial correlation can
significantly lower the fund's MDD ratio ranking.
Stocks or funds in the lowest-volatility
quintile are on average experiencing a ranking
downgrade of about 2 to 3 percentage points
when the standard Sharpe ratio is switched
to the tail-risk-based Sharpe ratios. On the other
hand, the highest-volatility quintile is experiencing
an upgrade of about 2 to 3 percentage points.
The ranking variation, however, can be as high as
50 percentage points for an individual fund. K
James X. Xiong, Ph.D., CFA, is head of scientific investment
research with Morningstar Investment Management.

Optimal Portfolios and Extreme Risk Management."
Wilmott Magazine of Finance, Vol. 2003, No. 6, pp. 70-83.
Sharpe, W.F. 1966. "Mutual Fund Performance." Journal of
Business, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 119-138.
Sharpe, W.F. 1994. "The Sharpe Ratio." Journal of Portfolio
Management, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 45-58.
Sortino, F.A. and Hopelain, D. 1980. "The Pension Fund:
Investment, or Capital Budgeting Decision?" Financial
Executive Magazine, Vol. 48, pp. 21-23.
Treynor, J. 1965. "How to Rate Management of Investment
Funds." Harvard Business Review, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 63-75.
Young, T.W. 1991. "Calmar Ratio: A Smoother Tool." Futures,
Oct. 1, p. 40.
Note
A longer version of the paper was published in The Journal
of Portfolio Management, Winter 2018, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp.
114-125. http://jpm.iijournals.com/content/44/3/114?etoc

Thomas M. Idzorek, CFA, is chief investment officer-retirement with Morningstar Investment Management. He is a
member of the editorial board of Morningstar magazine.
References
Rachev, S., Martin, D., and Siboulet, F. 2003. "Phi-Alpha

global.morningstar.com/Morningstarmagazine

41


http://jpm.iijournals.com/content/44/3/114?etoc http://cffpinfo.com http://global.morningstar.com/Morningstarmagazine

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018

Contents
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - Cover1
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - Cover2
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 1
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 2
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - Contents
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 4
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 5
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 6
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 7
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 8
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 9
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 10
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 11
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 12
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 13
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 14
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 15
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 16
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 17
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 18
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 19
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 20
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 21
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 22
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 23
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 24
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 25
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 26
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 27
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 28
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 29
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 30
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 31
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 32
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 33
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 34
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 35
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 36
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 37
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 38
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 39
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 40
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 41
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 42
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 43
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 44
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 45
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 46
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 47
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 48
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 49
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 50
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 51
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 52
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 53
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 54
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 55
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 56
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 57
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 58
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 59
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 60
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 61
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 62
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 63
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 64
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 65
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 66
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 67
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 68
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 69
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 70
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 71
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 72
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 73
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 74
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 75
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 76
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 77
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 78
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 79
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - 80
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - Cover3
Morningstar Magazine - April/May 2018 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_2021q1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_2020q4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_2020q3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_2020q2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_2020q1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_2019winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_2019fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_2019summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_2019spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20191201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20181011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20180809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20180607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20180405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20180203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20181201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20171011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20170809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20170607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20170405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20170203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20171201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20161011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20160809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20160607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20160405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20160203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20161201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20151011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20150809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20150607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20150405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20150203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20151201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20141011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20140809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20140607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20140405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/magazine_20140203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20141201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20131011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20130809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20130607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20130405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20130203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20131201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20121011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20120809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20120607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20120405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/investorconference2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20120203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20121201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20111011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20110809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20110607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20110405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20110203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20111201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20101011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20100809_lincoln
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20100809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20100607_lincoln
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20100607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20100405_lincoln
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20100405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20100203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20101201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20091011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20090809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20090607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20090405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_20090203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_2008fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_2008summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_2007spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_2007fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_2007summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_2008spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_2008catalog
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/morningstar/advisor_2008winter
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com