International Educator - January/February 2014 - 53

Historical Context
for the Second Narrative

cans were seasoned socially, traveling to the cultural
capitals of Europe in search of the personal enlightenment that was to be found in the museums, villas,
and drawing rooms of London, Paris, and Rome. At
renowned universities in these and other favored cities, professors delivered valuable knowledge about
the universe through lectures or readings.
THE FIRST MASTER NARRATIVE

Immersion in the New and Different
All cultures are equal, and no single perspective is
inherently superior to any other. Each culture's members have over time come to respond uniquely to a
common set of human needs and desires.
Humans learn through being exposed to new
and different ideas, behavior, objects, events, and

INTERNATIONAL EDUCATOR

Students learn through being exposed to an external,
objective, and largely stable world that is the primary
agent of learning. The meaning of things is to be found
in this external world, and students come to know
things about it in two related ways. First, they acquire
knowledge through their physical senses-a process,
known as "experience," that all humans share. Second,
they learn as teachers transfer knowledge about the
world to them, in the form of lectures or readings.
When a student encounters new and different
ideas, objects, behavior, events, institutions, and so
on, he or she takes in fragments of these unfamiliar
experiences as they imprint themselves on and are
stored in his or her memory.
It is in the nature of things that some human societies are superior to others. Through a process of
natural selection, these "civilized" societies, most of
them located in Western Europe and North America,
have come to dominate less advanced groups. Students acquire desirable social skills as they come into
contact with knowledgeable and well-informed people, and they acquire valuable universal knowledge
through attending institutions of higher education in
these privileged places.

SECOND MASTER NARRATIVE

J A N + F E B . 14

SHUTTERSTOCK/ ISTOCKPHOTO

Learning Through Exposure
to the New and Different

Following the Second World War,
Margaret Mead and other cultural anthropologists popularized cultural
relativity, undermining the assumption
that some cultures are superior to others. Confronted with evidence that U.S.
diplomats and aid workers sent to live
and work abroad were failing to adapt
to other cultures on their own, the U.S.
government created a predeparture
training program within the Foreign
Service Institute. The anthropologist
Edward T. Hall, one of the founders
of intercultural communication and
the program's first director, contributed significantly
to the development of the "culture contrast" training
method. Sverre Lysgaard and Kalervo Oberg popularized a "U-curve" model that described how humans
adapted to the psychological stresses of a new environment. Gordon Allport and other social psychologists
developed the Contact Hypothesis, identifying social
engineering strategies that would reduce discrimination between racially or ethnically different groups.

53  



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - January/February 2014

International Educator - January/February 2014
Contents
From the Editors
In Brief
Storytelling— International Style
Puzzle Masters
Lone Star Looks Abroad
Education Abroad
Foreign Student Affairs
View From Out Here
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - January/February 2014 - International Educator - January/February 2014
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Cover2
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Contents
International Educator - January/February 2014 - From the Editors
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 3
International Educator - January/February 2014 - In Brief
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 5
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 6
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 7
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 8
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 9
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 10
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 11
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 12
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 13
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Storytelling— International Style
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 15
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 16
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 17
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 18
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 19
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 20
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 21
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 22
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 23
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 24
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 25
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Puzzle Masters
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 27
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 28
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 29
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 30
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 31
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Lone Star Looks Abroad
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 33
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 34
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 35
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 36
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 37
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 38
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 39
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Education Abroad
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 41
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 42
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 43
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Foreign Student Affairs
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 45
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 46
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 47
International Educator - January/February 2014 - View From Out Here
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 49
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 50
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 51
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Forum
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 53
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 54
International Educator - January/February 2014 - 55
International Educator - January/February 2014 - In Focus
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Cover3
International Educator - January/February 2014 - Cover4
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