International Educator - March/April 2016 - 26

Brazil, and currently an independent researcher on the
internationalization of higher education. "There is also increasingly government introduction of dual-degree and
research-collaboration programs, mainly in some areas
considered as strategic for the development of the countries in the region."
"Partnerships between Latin American higher education institutions and higher education institutions in
other regions are now no longer a new phenomenon or a
novelty; they are a common strategy," Francisco Marmolejo, the World Bank's lead tertiary education specialist,
founder of the Consortium for North American Higher
Education Collaboration, and the first Mexican fellow
of the American Council on Education. "You are seeing
more two-way and multiway partnerships given that more
institutions across the world see Latin America as a partner to build with and to do business with."
But challenges to Latin American HEI partnerships
and internationalization remain, with declining economic
fortunes in some countries limiting national initiatives to
support student exchanges; issues of fairness with respect
to providing access to such international study opportunities to all students; and challenges in creating adequate
capacity and appropriate conditions to receive foreign
students. For many, there is also the added challenge of
being a late-comer to the higher education partnership
dance: many potentially desirable partners have already
struck partnerships.
Indeed, some say that Latin American HEIs still have a
lot of ground to gain in increasing their internationalization. "The interest of Latin American students in studying
abroad is less than for students in China, India, or Europe
for reasons that are a combination of culture and finances,"
says Jason Lane, a professor and codirector of the CrossBorder Education Team at the State University of New
York, Albany. "For many institutions in Latin America,
faculty have historically been slow to internationalize the
curricula and the lack of teaching English as a second language can limit international engagement opportunities.
There are also limitations in the capacity of their institutions to host large numbers of foreign students."
As Hans de Wit, director of the Center for International Higher Education at Boston College, Latin American
specialist, and former vice president, international, at the
University of Amsterdam, reflecting upon the IAU Global
Survey Results, observes: "This primary focus on Europe
and North America [as desired partners], combined with
a call for more intense networking, reflects the traditional
view of internationalization as capacity building funded by
external donor funding still largely held by the academic
26  

INTERNATIONAL EDUCATOR M A R + A P R .16

community in the region. It does not recognize the changing position of Latin America as an economic power and
with that the more important role of higher education.
In contrast, some Latin American private universities are
now looking for new opportunities, in their own region
and in other parts of the world."
Colombia, conversely, is a positive example where the
government, the private sector, the accreditation agency,
and the public and private universities together invest
in promoting the country as a study destination, in internationalization of the curriculum and in scholarship
schemes, and have included internationalization as one
of the key indicators for accreditation, de Wit says. Other
countries, he states, lack such a comprehensive approach,
and there is also not a regional strategy to stimulate internationalization, for instance for recognition of credits or
support for intraregional mobility.
Many HEIs in Brazil, in particular, have greatly expanded their international partnerships over the past 15
years, notes Laus. "We have seen a big growth in international activities at UDESC during the last 10 to 15 years,"
says Laus, former director of International Cooperation at
Santa Catarina State University, Brazil (UDESC). "UDESC
now has about 78 partnership agreements signed with universities from abroad, the majority of them from Europe
(Germany, Portugal, Spain, France, Slovenia, Netherlands,
Ireland, Italy, Norway, and Sweden). More significant than
the growth in the number of bilateral agreements is the
significant increase in the number of students, teachers,
and researchers involved in partnership activities, which
reflects a more aggressive UDESC institutional policy of
internationalization, based not only upon co-financing
but also through newly created institutional programs to
support academic mobility."
Laus says that the majority of the partnership agreements at UDESC, a multicampus university with more
than 15,000 students in the State of Santa Catarina in
southeast Brazil, were created in order to support academic and research activities and that 70 of them give
support to academic mobility at the undergraduate level.
"The main benefits for UDESC are through creation of
opportunities for students and researchers in undergraduate and post-graduate courses to be in touch with other
cultures and academic environments, to improve their academic and languages skills, and to open the university to
students and researchers from abroad, in order to also promote its process of internationalization at home," Laus says.
Latin American HEIs are extending partnerships
throughout the world, and though there are no hard numbers on the aggregate number of partnerships, there are



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - March/April 2016

Contents
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Cover1
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Cover2
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Contents
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 2
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 3
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 4
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 5
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 6
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 7
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 8
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 9
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 10
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 11
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 12
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 13
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 14
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 15
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 16
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 17
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 18
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 19
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 20
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 21
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 22
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International Educator - March/April 2016 - 28
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International Educator - March/April 2016 - 55
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 56
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Cover3
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Cover4
International Educator - March/April 2016 - FCover1
International Educator - March/April 2016 - FCover2
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F1
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F2
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F3
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F4
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F5
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International Educator - March/April 2016 - F19
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F20
International Educator - March/April 2016 - FCover3
International Educator - March/April 2016 - FCover4
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