International Educator - March/April 2016 - 53

Governments of the region view internationalization as a way to develop
new cultural, economic, and political linkages abroad, as well as a way to
raise the quality of education in the country and, by extension,
the quality of life of their citizens.
The Bologna process also impacted Latin
American higher education.

Latin American Higher
Education Reforms

signatories to harmoni z ing many
features of higher education. Measures were
introduced to increase student mobility, to harmonize
university degree systems to consist of bachelor, master, and doctoral
degree cycles, and to create a "diploma
supplement" that would accompany all
degrees to explain the academic and professional qualifications of each degree granted.
Additionally, the European Credit
Transfer System (ECTS) was established to
standardize the system of credits for classroom learning and professional experiences.
Quality assurance measures also were introduced, more attention was paid to lifelong
skills training, and a process was introduced
to better connect higher education with the
labor market in order to improve graduate
employability. In short, innovative ideas to
improve transparency, transferability and
flexibility were introduced to Europe's traditional educational structures. By 2010, when
the European Higher Education Area (EHEA)
was formally launched, Europe had begun
championing similar reforms in other parts
of the globe. In Africa, the Bologna Process
influenced the creation of the East African
Community of higher education institutions.
In Asia, the Association of Southeast Asian
Nations (ASEAN) launched a quality framework and curriculum development process in
2005. The North African countries of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia began harmonizing
their degree structures along Bologna lines.4

Indeed, several domestic reforms were introduced across Latin America in the area of
degree recognition, shortly after the launch
of the Bologna process. In 2000 Mexico's
Ministry of Education harmonized degree
recognition, while a 2003 Colombian decree
sought to standardize its academic credit system. In 2004 Costa Rica adopted common
nomenclature for higher education diplomas.5
At the regional level, moreover, the
European Union-Latin America/Caribbean Higher Education Area (UEALC) was
launched in 2000 in response to the Bologna Process. Since its inauguration, regular
summits have been held between European
and Latin American higher education leaders on higher education issues. UEALC has
committed itself to improving cooperation
between Latin America and Europe, as well
as fostering cooperation between Latin
American countries themselves in the area
of higher education, with student mobility
and credit recognition being key focal points.
Goals of UEALC include creating greater
transparency in the recognition of transfer
credits between institutions. UEALC supported the development of a common academic
credit system called SICA (Sistema de Creditos Academicos), and a degree recognition
system, CAT (Complemento al Titulo), similar
to Europe's ECTS and diploma supplement.
SICA and CAT, initiatives which emerged
out of an academic summit that took place in
2004 in Argentina, were intended to create a
more streamlined and transparent academic
credit system.6 The implementation of SICA
and CAT, however, remains elusive for a number of reasons outlined in the next section.
Other noteworthy cross-border reform
initiatives include the launch of the Network

of Macro-Universities of Latin America
and the Caribbean in 2002. The network
promotes credential recognition and student exchanges among Latin America's 30
largest higher education institutions. Yet
another regional initiative was Mercosur's
2003 higher education project to improve
academic quality by developing a "User's
Guide" for academic credit transfer across
the region, a process spearheaded by the
Association of Universities and Technical
Colleges of Mercosur (AUITMER).7

Challenges to Regional
Cooperation in Latin America
Nevertheless, the process to bring about
greater cooperation in the realm of higher
education has been slow moving. There are
numerous reasons that account for this,
including the lack of a strong regional integration framework, like that which exists
in Europe, which prevents more sweeping
reforms. There also is a frequent lack of
resources available to Latin American governments to improve the quality of higher
education, as well as cultural resistance to
change within some countries, which result
in many governments rallying around preserving the status quo.
Additionally, there are structural issues
within the tertiary education sector itself.
These include the dominant position enjoyed
by public universities in many countries, who
defend their privileged roles in their higher
education systems. Added to this is the proliferation of poorly regulated private sector
institutions -some of whom are of dubious
quality-which hampers the implementation
of widespread mutual credit recognition.
Finally, there is also often a general lack of
consensus over how to harmonize program
structures and diploma requirements.8
Given the above factors, any move toward
more effective credit recognition within
Latin American countries remains an acute
M A R + A P R .16 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATOR

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - March/April 2016

Contents
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Cover1
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Cover2
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Contents
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 2
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 3
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 4
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 5
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 6
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 7
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 8
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 9
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 10
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 11
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 12
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 13
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 14
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 15
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 16
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 17
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 18
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 19
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 20
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 21
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 22
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 23
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 24
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 25
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 26
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 27
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 28
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 29
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 30
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 31
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 32
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 33
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 34
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 35
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 36
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 37
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 38
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 39
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 40
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 41
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 42
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 43
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 44
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 45
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 46
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 47
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 48
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 49
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 50
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 51
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 52
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 53
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 54
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 55
International Educator - March/April 2016 - 56
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Cover3
International Educator - March/April 2016 - Cover4
International Educator - March/April 2016 - FCover1
International Educator - March/April 2016 - FCover2
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F1
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F2
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F3
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F4
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F5
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F6
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F7
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F8
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F9
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F10
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F11
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International Educator - March/April 2016 - F14
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F15
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F16
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F17
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F18
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F19
International Educator - March/April 2016 - F20
International Educator - March/April 2016 - FCover3
International Educator - March/April 2016 - FCover4
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