International Educator - May/June 2016 - 5

TA B LE 1

Technological Advances Since 1990
TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE

1990

2016

World Wide Web*

Did not exist

3.2 billion users worldwide, integrated into operations of all major companies.

Smartphones

Did not exist

Over 2 billion owners; have transformed entire industries.

Mobile Applications

Did not exist

Over 179 billion app downloads yearly on mobile devices.

Social Media

Did not exist

74% of U.S. Internet users visit a social media site.

Streaming Music

Did not exist

164 billion songs streamed in U.S. in 2014.

Streaming Video

Did not exist

84% of Internet traffic will be streaming video by 2018.

Gaming over the Internet

Did not exist

671 million people worldwide play online games.

Source: National Foundation for American Policy, Money, The Telegraph, Forbes, Pew Research Center, Nielsen SoundScan, Cisco, comScore.
*Software for World Wide Web not distributed widely until 1991; in 1990 World Wide Web did not exist for individuals on a global scale.

SHUTTERSTOCK

The Internet as
a Commercial Force
While the Internet existed in 1990, the World
Wide Web did not exist on a global scale for
individuals.3 Engineers created the Internet
but it was designed for people with strong
technical backgrounds, which limited its usefulness to the general public. That changed in
1991. "In the summer of 1991 Tim BernersLee, a computer systems analyst at CERN,
released the first World Wide Web software
to the high-energy physics community,"
according to Pamela Samuelson and Hal
R. Varian of the University of CaliforniaBerkeley. "The Web put a friendly face on
the Internet, providing an interface that a 10year old, or even a 50-year old, could easily
understand. Perhaps more importantly, the
back-end protocols for authoring and distributing Web pages (HTML and HTTP) were

easy to understand and use as well, facilitating
the rapid deployment of Web servers."4
Worldwide, "the number of Internet users
has increased from 738 million in 2000 to
3.2 billion in 2015."5 But it took time for the
Internet to develop into a commercial force,
with the development of web browsers representing a key boost to Internet commerce.
Marc Andreessen, who later cofounded
Netscape, led the team that in 1993 released
the Mosaic browser. "Mosaic's charming
appearance encourages users to load their
own documents onto the Net, including
color photos, sound bites, video clips, and
hypertext 'links' to other documents," explained Wired magazine. "By following the
links-click, and the linked document appears-you can travel through the online
world along paths of whim and intuition."6
Within a few years, Microsoft launched

Internet Explorer, marking an escalation in
what became known as the "browser wars."

Smartphones
No smartphones existed in 1990. But by
2016, smartphone users were expected to
exceed 2 billion, meaning one-quarter of the
world's population will own one. By 2018,
2.6 billion, or about one-third of the people
on Earth, will possess a smartphone.7 And
the economic impact of the smartphone
is expected to grow. "Smartphones will remake entire industries, at unheard-of speed,"
according to The Economist. "Uber is a
household name, operating in 55 countries,
but has yet to celebrate its fifth birthday.
WhatsApp was founded in 2009, and already
handles 10 billion more messages a day than
the SMS global text-messaging system. The
phone is a platform, so startups can cheaply
M AY + J U N E .16 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATOR

5  



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - May/June 2016

Toward a Better World
Tech Abroad
The University of Virginia Seeks to Emulate Its Founder
Frontlines
In Brief
Global Spotlight
Education Abroad
Foreign Student Affairs
International Enrollment
View From Out Here
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2016 - BB1
International Educator - May/June 2016 - BB2
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Cover1
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Cover2
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 1
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 2
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 3
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Frontlines
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 5
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 6
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 7
International Educator - May/June 2016 - In Brief
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 9
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 10
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 11
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 12
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 13
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 14
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 15
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Global Spotlight
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 17
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 18
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 19
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Toward a Better World
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 21
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 22
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 23
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 24
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 25
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 26
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 27
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 28
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 29
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 30
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 31
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 32
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 33
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 34
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 35
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Tech Abroad
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 37
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 38
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 39
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 40
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 41
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 42
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 43
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 44
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 45
International Educator - May/June 2016 - The University of Virginia Seeks to Emulate Its Founder
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 47
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 48
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 49
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 50
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 51
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 52
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 53
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 54
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 55
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Education Abroad
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 57
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 58
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 59
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 60
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 61
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Foreign Student Affairs
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 63
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 64
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 65
International Educator - May/June 2016 - International Enrollment
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 67
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 68
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 69
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 70
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 71
International Educator - May/June 2016 - View From Out Here
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 73
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 74
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 75
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Forum
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 77
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 78
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 79
International Educator - May/June 2016 - In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Cover3
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Cover4
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