International Educator - May/June 2016 - 6

FRONTLINES

create an app to test an idea-and then rapidly go global if people like it. That is why it
will unleash creativity on a planetary scale."8
Whether the phone is produced by Apple, Samsung, or another company, it is the
computing power that makes today's smartphones so different from anything conceived
of decades ago. "Apple's iPhone 6 is roughly
1 million times more powerful than an IBM
computer from 1975-which took up an entire room-according to a rough estimate by
UC Berkeley's Bokor," reports CNet.9
The iPhone and other smartphones
helped unleash applications or "apps." After
Apple created an App Store and competitors followed suit, thousands of games and
other applications flooded the marketplace,
which created demand for individuals with
the technical skills who could develop and
support these applications.

Social Media
Today 74 percent of adults who are online
use at least one social network website.10
Social networks developed and proved popular as a way to connect with school friends
and soon evolved into a way to make new
friends. Classmates.com started in 1995
and SixDegrees.com, which allowed the
creation of user profiles, began in 1997. In
2002 Jonathan Abrams created Friendster.
In 2003 LinkedIn was founded and focused
on professional networking, while Myspace
aimed at nonbusiness users.11
In 2004 Mark Zuckerberg and his cofounders launched Facebook, which soon
eclipsed Myspace to become the world's most
popular social networking site. "Facebook is
king for a reason. It wasn't just through luck
that founder Mark Zuckerberg's darling
came to reign supreme over the social media
kingdom," explains Digital Trends, a website
for news, information, and reviews. A key
difference between Facebook and Myspace
(formerly listed as MySpace) is that Facebook
adopted a platform that made it possible for
developers to create apps for Facebook.12
Twitter, founded in 2006, allows users to
send out "tweets" of 140 characters or fewer
and is one of the world's most visited web6  

INTERNATIONAL EDUCATOR M AY + J U N E .16

sites, according to Alexa.13 Twitter is often
in the news when celebrities, athletes, or
politicians post something considered controversial. But it is also used by performers,
companies, and individuals to connect with
fans and consumers.

Portable and Streaming
Music and Video
In the 1950s when someone wanted portable music, he or she needed to walk around
with a transistor radio. By the 1970s and
1980s, portable music came in the form of
the Sony Walkman, but was limited to what
could fit on a 90-minute cassette tape.
In 2001 Apple released the first iPod,
which allowed portable music in the form of
digital files to be downloaded onto a device.
In that same year, Apple created iTunes and
later the iTunes Store as a way for consumers
to purchase and download audio and video
files. Later, individuals could download
songs and videos onto their smartphones.
Eventually, music sites developed that gave
listeners the option to stream songs or pay
to download them. Among the most popular of these have been Pandora, Spotify, and
Rhapsody. Technological developments made
these companies possible. "Before the rise of
the MP3, even the most fanatical music fan,
with a basement stacked high with LPs, tapes
and CDs, wouldn't have had a fraction of the
20 million songs available on a child's smartphone via serves like Spotify or Rhapsody,"
according to Eric Brynjolfsson and Andrew
McAfee, authors of The Second Machine
Age.14 In 2014 approximately 164 billion songs
were streamed online in the United States.15
Video and books also became much more
portable. In 2007 Amazon launched Kindle,
its first eBook reader. A later version, Kindle
PaperWhite, could store 2,000 books, which
is more books than most people will read in
a decade.16 Other Kindle versions allow consumers to download movies and TV shows.
The first "tablet" to sell millions of copies was Apple's iPad, which was released in
2010. By April 2011 the company had sold
more than 15 million units. The original
iPad had a 9.7 inch screen and was porta-

ble, since it weighed less (and took up less
space) than a laptop. Consumers could use
it in meetings or for playing music or video.
Apple came out with new versions and competitors introduced their own tablets.
Online streaming of television and movies
also did not exist prior to 1990. Reed Hastings
and Marc Randolph started Netflix in 1997
as a company that rented DVDs to consumers by mail for a monthly subscription. But
Hastings saw online streaming of video as
the future, particularly given the immediacy
it provided consumers. Streaming technology
allowed Netflix to produce original programming and to make hours of content available
to consumers without the need for scheduled
viewing time, as in traditional television. Today, Netflix has "over 70 million members in
over 190 countries."17 Netflix's competitors
include Hulu (and Amazon). Cisco estimates
that by 2018, 84 percent of Internet traffic will
be streaming video.18
What about other advances? Improvements in graphics have led to an estimated
671 million people worldwide playing games
online.19 Using 3-D printers, aircraft makers
can produce parts and doctors have made
certain medical devices, illustrating that some
key technological advances are extremely
promising but still may be in their infancy.

Are All Companies Now
Software Companies?
Today "software companies" is an elastic term, since even companies delivering
traditional products and services rely on
software, which means greater demand for
people with such skills. Internet pioneer
Andreessen has pointed out the oil industry, financial services, and stalwarts like
Wal-Mart and FedEx utilize software for
logistics and other purposes to gain an edge
on competitors and satisfy customers.20
Andreessen also could have written about
pizza. "The atmosphere at company headquarters feels more like Silicon Valley than
a fast-food company," observed economist
Stephen Moore during a visit to Domino's.
"Most employees here are computer programmers and technicians monitoring in real


http://www.Classmates.com http://www.SixDegrees.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - May/June 2016

Toward a Better World
Tech Abroad
The University of Virginia Seeks to Emulate Its Founder
Frontlines
In Brief
Global Spotlight
Education Abroad
Foreign Student Affairs
International Enrollment
View From Out Here
Forum
In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2016 - BB1
International Educator - May/June 2016 - BB2
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Cover1
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Cover2
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 1
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 2
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 3
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Frontlines
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 5
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 6
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 7
International Educator - May/June 2016 - In Brief
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 9
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 10
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 11
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 12
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 13
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 14
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 15
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Global Spotlight
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 17
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 18
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 19
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Toward a Better World
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 21
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 22
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 23
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 24
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 25
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 26
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 27
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 28
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 29
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 30
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 31
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 32
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 33
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 34
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 35
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Tech Abroad
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 37
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 38
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 39
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 40
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 41
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 42
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 43
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 44
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 45
International Educator - May/June 2016 - The University of Virginia Seeks to Emulate Its Founder
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 47
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 48
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 49
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 50
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 51
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 52
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 53
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 54
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 55
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Education Abroad
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 57
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 58
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 59
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 60
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 61
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Foreign Student Affairs
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 63
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 64
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 65
International Educator - May/June 2016 - International Enrollment
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 67
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 68
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 69
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 70
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 71
International Educator - May/June 2016 - View From Out Here
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 73
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 74
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 75
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Forum
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 77
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 78
International Educator - May/June 2016 - 79
International Educator - May/June 2016 - In Focus
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Cover3
International Educator - May/June 2016 - Cover4
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