International Educator - September/October 2019 - 46

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FORUM
By Bryan McAllister-Grande

Golden Ages on the Horizon
Any reproaches of international higher education
being in a state of crisis or retreat are defied by
excitement and cooperation in the emerging fields
of digital humanities and global identities. Today,
international education is booming-but it is
booming in the areas of teaching, learning, and
research, beyond the old paradigm of student and
scholar mobility.
The teaching and learning of international
education is a misunderstood phenomenon. It delves
into areas that are still novel and perplexing: how
to integrate global learning into the classroom and
curriculum, and how to assess (qualitatively and
quantitatively) the impact of international education
on student learning outcomes.
No single association, organization, or discipline
can rightly claim the mantle of international
education as a form of knowledge, which places
the field both at the center and at the periphery
of the academy. Because the academy favors
single disciplines over large-scale interdisciplinary
cooperation, key areas of knowledge remain fractured
and misunderstood.
It is time to retire the misconception that
international education is simply mobility of people,
programs, or ideas. Instead, international education
can be considered a "new discipline"-a trailblazing
paradigm that upends traditional knowledge structures.

Historical Roots and New Areas of Scholarship
A century ago, international education emerged as
a new area of praxis-a crucial link between the
idealistic theory of international relations and the
practice of fostering world peace and understanding.
International education practitioners took on this
challenge and succeeded, taking the field to new levels
and new audiences.
The field draws its history and strength from at
least five disciplines and knowledge orientations:
anthropology, cross-cultural psychology and
linguistics, historicism, critical sociology/global
studies, and the learning sciences. If we combine these
46

INTERNATIONAL EDUCATOR S E P T + O C T.2019

traditionally distinct frameworks, we arrive at the
new mega discipline of international education. Each
framework contributes something foundational so that
the whole is larger than the sum of its parts.
Anthropology. From anthropology, Josef
Mestenhauser positioned that we start with the concepts
of "emic" and "etic." Emic refers to the study of a culture
in its internal, relative elements-in other words, the
"insider view" of a culture on its own, unique terms. Etic,
in contrast, refers to the study of a culture in its external,
objective elements-the "outsider" or comparative view.
These concepts are slightly dated in anthropology
itself, but they are revolutionary within the study of
international and higher education. In the emic view,
international education is the internal construction that
makes up educational and societal systems. It includes
the systems of thought that structure how a culture or
cultures think of themselves internally.
If we simultaneously take the etic view, then
international education includes the structures
of globalization, universalism, and economic
integration that barrel down on the emic. This "double
consciousness" (to borrow a term from W.E.B. Du Bois)
means that international education is properly a form of
intersectionality that crosses the entire academy as well
as all life and human activity. It is not just international
students or global stuff. International education is simply:
life in the twenty-first century.
Cross-Cultural Psychology and Linguistics.
From these frameworks, we derive many of the
field's core concepts, including cultural dimensions,
culture shock, cultural adaptation and intercultural
development, individualism and collectivism, values
and belief orientations, linguistic relativism, double
consciousness, and linguistic "code-switching." Crosscultural psychology is itself a burgeoning field of
research and theory, which aims to avoid the Western
bias of much of the history of human psychology.
For example, many students and faculty continue to
believe in the idea that science and math are universal,
while the humanities are historical and cultural. These
barriers between the "scientific" and the "cultural" are

GRISHA BRUEV

International Higher Education and the Knowledge Revolution



International Educator - September/October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of International Educator - September/October 2019

From the Desk of
In Brief
Global Spotlight: Chile
Quick Questions
Feature: Countering the Forces of Change
Feature: Raising the Bar
Feature: Branching Out
Education Abroad
International Student Affairs
International Enrollment Management
International Education Leadership
Forum
Take 5
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Cover1
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Cover2
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 1
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 2
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 3
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 4
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 5
International Educator - September/October 2019 - From the Desk of
International Educator - September/October 2019 - In Brief
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 8
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 9
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 10
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Global Spotlight: Chile
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Quick Questions
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 13
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 14
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 15
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Feature: Countering the Forces of Change
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 17
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 18
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 19
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 20
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 21
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 22
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 23
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Feature: Raising the Bar
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 25
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 26
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 27
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 28
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 29
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Feature: Branching Out
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 31
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 32
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 33
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 34
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 35
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 36
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 37
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Education Abroad
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 39
International Educator - September/October 2019 - International Student Affairs
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 41
International Educator - September/October 2019 - International Enrollment Management
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 43
International Educator - September/October 2019 - International Education Leadership
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 45
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Forum
International Educator - September/October 2019 - 47
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Take 5
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Cover3
International Educator - September/October 2019 - Cover4
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