Landscapes - Winter 2013 - (Page 27)

RÉSERVE DE CIEL ÉTOILÉ 1 2 NEIL DAWE + PAMELA MURPHY, TRACT CONSULTING INC. THE GROS MORNE CHALLENGE: Is Newfoundland immune from light pollution? 1 GROS MORNE SKY 2 SUNSET AT BROOM POINT FISHING EXHIBIT | 1 LE CIEL DE GROS MORNE 2 COUCHER DE SOLEIL À L’EXPOSITION DE PÈCHE DE BROOM POINT PHOTOS 1 SHELDON STONE/PARKS CANADA 2 DALE WILSON/PARKS CANADA | 1 SHELDON STONE / PARCS CANADA 2 DALE WILSON/PARCS CANADA   IT WAS ANOTHER brilliant fall evening in Bonne Bay, Gros Morne National Park, with the stars providing a potpourri of sparkle. To the south, the silhouette of the mountains, illuminated by the waters of Western Arm, invited welcome relaxation and contemplation. But tonight something was amiss, the tranquility ruptured. Sharp shafts of white light pierced the evening sky: the harsh light that of a recently opened Inn – a place developed to allow visitors to enjoy the splendor of this marvelous place. Such irony! I thought. Surely we can do better! Indeed, light polluted skies are ubiquitous. Since Mr. Edison’s bulb turned Chicago into the “white city” at the World’s Fair in 1893, our cities have become increasingly “white.” Today, the light from large cities is visible up to one hundred miles away, and it affects about 60 per cent of our world’s people and about one-fifth of the world’s terrain. We are led to believe that new lighting technology uses less energy and is environmentally friendly, so we use more lighting and think it’s safe. WHITE NIGHTS Yet we are compromising our existence as diurnal creatures, according to Verlyn Klinkenborg, author of the National Geographic article, “Our Vanishing Night.” We’ve engineered the night to receive us by filling it with light, yet much of that light is wasted. Light pollution represents an estimated $2 billion per annum in lost energy, even if we ignore its impacts on human health and the environment. The Dark Sky Association categorizes light pollution as Clutter, Glare, Light Trespass and Urban Sky Glow. “Clutter” is bright, confusing and excessive groupings of light sources, commonly found in over-lit urban areas. “Glare” is excessive brightness that causes visual discomfort. “Light trespass” is light falling where it is not intended, wanted or needed. “Urban sky glow” is the brightening of the night sky over inhabited areas. Today, rather than identifying a light bulb according to the power it consumes, lumens identify a light bulb’s perceived brightness. Dark Sky ordinances limit the lumens (luminous flux) per acre, and ensure streetlights are shielded to focus light downward, to make streets brighter but the sky darker. This strategy, and other new planning and design approaches for neighbourhoods can help control the misuse of light. There are many inventive solutions to explore: for example, research confirms that good planting design on city streets can reduce glare and increase visibility – and this is just one informative nugget that can be shared with our clients. The emerging role of landscape architects, then, is to offer information and creative options to their clients and communities, to use lighting design professionals, and to be in the forefront of inclusive lighting design. WINTER HIVER 2013 27

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Landscapes - Winter 2013

Excitable Photons in the Ether | Photons affolés
99 Red Balloons | Light by the Barrel | Something Old, Something New | Cambridge Lights Up | Emptyful
We are Modern Day Lamplighters | Les allumeurs de réverbères modernes ….
The Lights Come Up on 3 Exceptional Landscapes | Les lumières s’allument sur trois paysages exceptionnels
Champ-de-Mars: Shedding Light on History | La lumière au service de l’histoire
To Infinity and Beyond! | Par delà l’infini!
The Gros Morne Challenge | Le défi de Gros-Morne
Cypress Hills: Land of the Living Skies | Cypress Hills : où le ciel s’anime
Urban Parks: To Light or Not to Light? | Parcs urbains : doit-on les éclairer? ….
Lightitude: Lighting Under a Capricious Sky | Lightitude : éclairer sous un ciel capricieux
A Pragmatist’s Guide | Guide pragmatique
Three Riffs on Custom Design | Trois approches du design personnalisé
Seeing Light | Voir la lumière
Representing Landscapes, Ed. Nadia Amoroso.
Collaborators |Collaborateurs
Game Changers | Nouvelle donne : quatre decennies en lumiere

Landscapes - Winter 2013