JED - May 2011 - (Page 52)

EW 101 Spectrum Warfare By Dave Adamy his month, we start a new series to discuss the impact of EW on the new ways that warfare is conducted. There is a great deal written about this in EW-related literature. As in all changing fields, we will go through a period of trying to decide on the necessary vocabulary. We will disagree, and the terminology will evolve. As always, this column will focus on the technical aspects of the subject and the descriptions of tactics. Modulations, etc. will be presented in basic terms. The official definitions seem to be evolving, so we may be a little soft in that area. Please feel free to enter the conversation. JED readers have much knowledge that, if it can be discussed in unclassified terms, will be valuable to the whole EW community. If you email comments on definitions, techniques, bandwidths, etc., please indicate your source to let me know that the information is open source. I will add your comments to appropriate columns and will quote you (by name and organization). Be aware that columns are written two or three months before your magazines reach your desk. (Our OODA loop is 60 to 90 days – more about OODA loops later.) T 52 The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2011 only one transmission in the world. When tuned transmitters were developed shortly thereafter, interference between radio links was still a significant problem. The certainty of intercept of radio communication and radar signals and the ability to locate transmitters had significant impact on military operations. Intercept, jamming, emitter location, message security and transmission security became fundamental to warfare – and are not likely to go away – ever. The basic destructive capabilities employed in warfare have not changed a lot. People who develop these items will probably argue this point. However, the ways that they are employed have changed significantly through use of the EMS. Today we guide the destructive energy of weapons toward their intended targets using the EMS in various ways. We in the EW business also use the EMS to try to prevent those weapons from hitting their intended targets – or preventing the enemy from knowing where those targets are. Destructive energy (fast moving projectiles, significant over-pressure or heat) is employed to kill enemies or to destroy things that they need to conduct warfare or to sustain their way of life. Sometimes, the destruction of communication capability by an enemy is a goal in itself. Thus, the battle-space, CHANGES IN WARFARE The enhancement in our ability to communicate is driving significant changes in the way we conduct warfare. Radio communication started about a century ago. Before that, distant communication was only by wire. For practical reasons, military communication was largely by wire until about two generations ago. Ships, aircraft and ground mobile assets needed to communicate without wires, so much effort went into radio communication. As World War II was starting, radar was developed by most opponents, and radio communication became much more sophisticated. From the beginning, the use and control of electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) was important. When Marconi made his first trans-Atlantic transmissions with a spark gap transmitter, it used so much of the spectrum that there was room for Before the Introduction of Radio Latitude Longitude Elevation Friendly Force Location Enemy Force Location Speed of Maneuver Time Timing of Weapon Release Enemy Vulnerability Direction of Weapons Maneuver of Forces Timeliness of Attack Since the Introduction of Radio Rate of Information Flow Bandwidth Required Frequency Interference Bandwidth Available Vulnerability to Intercept Frequency of Transmission Vulnerability to Jamming Fi 1 B f di i i f d di f di i Figure 1: Before radio communication, warfare was conducted in four dimensions. Now it has frequency as an additional dimension.

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of JED - May 2011

JED - May 2011
The View From Here
Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
The Monitor
Washington Report
World Report
Europe’s Leading EW and SIGINT Programs
TWTs and Beyond: Putting More Power into EW
EW 101
AOC News
AOC Membership Page
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look

JED - May 2011