The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 8

2. Meaning. To help students learn spatial meanings and make basic distinctions between
prepositions, a chart with iconic images (like the figures presented in the "Meaning"
section of this chapter) can be used in class. Such a chart can assist learners in making
connections between the choice of preposition and the dimensions of the landmark.
As Yule (1998) suggests, students can be asked if reference points (landmarks) should
be considered as points, surfaces, or areas (p. 163). For example, what is the best
conceptualization for beach and water in these sentences?
We were at the beach. // We were on the beach.
We saw some boats in the water. // We saw some boats on the water.

3. Meaning. Clay modeling can also be used to emphasize spatial relationships. SerranoLopez and Poehner (2008) asked learners of Spanish to make models that reflected
underlying spatial concepts for Spanish prepositions. They can then be guided to create
models for English prepositions. In creating their own three-dimensional representations,
students are able to explore relationships between trajectors and landmarks in a very
hands-on way.
4. Meaning. Various techniques exist for training students to see the core meaning of
a preposition within different uses of that preposition. Tyler and Evans (2004) make
suggestions for how to present extended senses for over. For the sense of A-B-C trajectory,
they recommend using a flip book (or a video clip that can be segmented into individual
frames) with images of a cat jumping over a wall. After showing all the images of the cat
moving from one side of the wall (point A) to the other side of the wall (point C), ask
students how the cat moved to point C. Then focus on the pages (or frames) where the cat
is suspended over the obstacle of the wall (point B). Note that these images correspond to
the core meaning of over, and that to use the preposition for this extended sense, the cat
must land on the other side of the wall.
Yule (1998) encourages learners to examine prepositions used in time expressions
(e.g., at 10 o'clock, on September 3rd, in January) and to think about the landmarks
within the prepositional phrases. How should the landmarks be perceived? Should
they be conceptualized as a specific point in time (10 o'clock), a restricted unit of time
(September 3rd), or an extended period of time (January)? This activity can be continued
by asking learners to sketch the landmarks in a way that represents the core spatial
meanings of the prepositions. Thus, 10 o'clock might be drawn as a dot-reflecting the
landmark of at as a point of orientation, September 3rd as a flat square-reflecting
the landmark of on as a two-dimensional surface, and January as a box-reflecting the
landmark of in as a three-dimensional container. Such sketches should help learners make
connections between spatial and more abstract meanings of prepositions.
5. Meaning. Lindstromberg (1996) outlines a systematic approach to teaching the
prototypical meanings of the prepositions,9 and how to treat their more abstract meanings
derived by metaphorical extensions. He illustrates his approach with the preposition on.
We don't have the space to report every step of the approach, but here is a synopsis.
Lindstromberg first uses classic approaches, such as the use of Total Physical Response
and schemata, to make the protypical place and goal meaning of a preposition clear; for
example:

Chapter 21: Prepositions
8

433



The Grammar Book - Third Edition

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The Grammar Book - Third Edition

Contents of The Grammar Book
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - Cover1
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - Cover2
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 1
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - Contents of The Grammar Book
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 3
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 4
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 5
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 6
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 7
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 8
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 9
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 10
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 11
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - 12
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - Cover3
The Grammar Book - Third Edition - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_noncc_k
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_noncc_5
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_noncc_3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_noncc_6
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_cc_3_sp
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_cc_5_sp
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_cc_2_sp
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_cc_6_sp
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_cc_4_sp
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_cc_1_sp
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_1_sp
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_4_sp
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/elgolperdido_sampler
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/laescuelita_doremisteriosa_sampler
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/pepegorras_sampler
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/porfavor_noleasestelibro_sampler
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/summerwinesampler
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/gabriel_comelibros_2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_k
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_5
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_6
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/panoramascience_te_2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/ladders2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/academicvocabtoolkit_grade7te_2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/academicvocabtoolkit_grade7se_2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/academicvocabtoolkit_primary2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/academicvocabtoolkit_secondary2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/exploremos_sampler_levels1and3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/rforr_units3to4_gr3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/rforr_units3to4_gr4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/rforr_units3to4_gr5
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/rforr_units3to4_grk
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/rforr_units1to2_gr2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/rforr_units3to4_gr6
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/rforr_units5to6_gr1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/pathways_LSCT_4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/pathways_LSCT_3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/pathways_LSCT_2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/pathways_LSCT_1
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngl/thegrammarbook3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/learningreader_green
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/thetempest_graphicnovel
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ngsp/cumbre
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com