American Rifleman - October 2016 - 62

GUNS ON THE BORDER

U.S. MODEL OF 1903 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE
& U.S. MODEL OF 1905 BAYONET

pillage and plunder. While the United States eventually
mended fences with Carranza and officially recognized
his government, Villa viewed this as betrayal and vowed
retaliation against the Americans.
For the next couple of years, Villa and his henchmen
crossed into the United States on numerous occasions
and stole livestock and other valuables. Eventually, the
situation devolved into more serious violence when followers of Villa murdered 17 U.S. citizens traveling on a
train in Mexico. This, understandably, caused a furor in
the United States. An attack on the town of Columbus,
N.M., on March 9, 1916, during which 18 Americans
were killed, resulted in such public outcry that President
Woodrow Wilson was forced to take decisive action. Wilson
directed the U.S. Army to pursue Villa into Mexico and
exact revenge for his actions. General Fredrick Funston,
commander of the Army's Southern Department, had
telegraphed the War Dept. the day after the Columbus
attack: "I urgently recommend that American troops be
given authority to pursue Villa into Mexican Territory [in
pursuit of] hostile Mexican bandits who raid American territory. So long as the border is a shelter for them they will
continue to harass our ranches and towns to our chagrin."
General Funston's recommendation was approved,
and a "Punitive Expedition" was organized by the U.S.
Army for the purpose of pursuing Villa and his men, and
punishing them for their actions against American lives
and property. General John J. Pershing, a veteran of the

62

Indian Wars, the Spanish-American War and the Philippine
Insurrection, was appointed commander of the expedition.
On March 15, 1916, Pershing led a contingent of American
troops across the border into Mexico. Eventually, some
10,000 troops were involved in the campaign.
The Punitive Expedition was notable for its use of aircraft
and motor vehicles, but both proved inadequate for their
intended purposes. The logistics of the campaign soon
became chaotic. There were numerous small-scale skirmishes
with Villa's followers with mixed results, and the campaign
never really achieved its stated goals. But the blunders
that resulted proved to have a silver lining as they vividly
pointed out areas that the U.S. Army needed to address and
solve, especially since the nation would be at war in Europe
less than a year later. The Punitive Expedition has been
referred to as a dress rehearsal for World War I. Like many
such endeavors, thankfully, the "main event" profited from
mistakes made during the rehearsal. The Mexican campaign
was also a chance for U.S. infantry arms to be evaluated
under actual field conditions.

U.S. Model 1903 Springfield Rifle
The '03 Springfield was adopted to correct the deficiencies found in the U.S. Krag rifle in .30-40 Krag when it
went up against Spanish troops armed with Model 1893
Mausers during the Spanish-American
War of 1898. The Mausers proved
to be superior to the Krag in many
respects, and the U.S. Ordnance Dept.
was forced to look for a new service
rifle, even though the Krag had been
adopted less than a decade earlier.
A new bolt-action repeating rifle,
heavily influenced by the Mauser,
was selected to replace the Krag. It
was standardized as the "U.S. Rifle,
Caliber .30 Model of 1903." The main
advantages of the M1903 over the
Krag were a stronger bolt with two
The U.S M1903 Springfield rifle, shown
here with "Buffalo Soldiers" (l.), proved
itself during the 1916 campaign pursuing Pancho Villa (opposite, top). Fielded
in smaller numbers were '03s fitted with
both Model 1913 (r.) and Model 1908
Warner & Swasey "Musket Sights."

OCTOBER 2016

AMERICAN RIFLEMAN

Author's collection



American Rifleman - October 2016

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Rifleman - October 2016

Contents
American Rifleman - October 2016 - Cover1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - Cover2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - Contents
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 3
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 4
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 5
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 6
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 7
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 8
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 9
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 10
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 11
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 12
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 13
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 14
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 15
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 16
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 17
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 18
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 19
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 20
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 21
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 22
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 23
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 24
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 25
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 26
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 27
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 28
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 29
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 30
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 31
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 32
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 33
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 34
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 35
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 36
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 37
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 38
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 39
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 40
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 41
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 42
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 43
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 44
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 45
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 46
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 47
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 48
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 49
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 50
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 51
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 52
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 53
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 54
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 55
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 56
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 57
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 58
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 59
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 60
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 61
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 62
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 63
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 64
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 65
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 66
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 67
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 68
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 69
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 70
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 71
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 72
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 73
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 74
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 75
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 76
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 77
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 78
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 79
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 80
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 81
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 82
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 83
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 84
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 85
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 86
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 87
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 88
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 89
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 90
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 91
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 92
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 93
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 94
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 95
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 96
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 97
American Rifleman - October 2016 - C1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - C2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - E1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - E2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - MW1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - MW2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - S1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - S2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - SW1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - SW2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - W1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - W2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 100
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 101
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 102
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 103
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 104
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 105
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 106
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 107
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 108
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 109
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 110
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 111
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 112
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