NSBE Magazine - Winter 2015 - 61

than 25 percent of STEM jobs, according to Beede, et al. This number
has remained stagnant for more than a decade. Figure 2 compares
males and females employed in STEM in 2000 and 2009.
*	 Women are shying away from the "E" in sTEM: Only about one of
every seven engineers is female. The bulk of men with STEM majors
(48 percent) choose engineering degrees, which is 2.5 times the
share of women who choose engineering. Figure 3 illustrates the
distribution of workers in STEM by academic disciplines and gender.

The Dearth of Women: Contributing Factors
*	 Limited access to mentors, role models and examples of women
in sTEM-"Women are also less likely than their male colleagues to
have role models or mentors," wrote Hill et al., "and, therefore, get
limited advice on navigating the workplace, professional and career
development, and advancing in their careers."
*	 Workplace microaggressions and implicit gender bias/
stereotyping, which affect performance and retention of women
in sTEM- ..."People not only associate math and science with 'male'
but also often hold negative opinions of women in 'masculine'
positions, like scientists or engineers," wrote Hill et al. "This research
shows that people judge women to be less competent than men in
'male' jobs unless women are clearly successful in their work. When
a woman is clearly competent in a 'masculine' job, she is considered
to be less likable. Because both likability and competence are
needed for success in the workplace, women in STEM fields can find
themselves in a double bind."
*	 Minimal exposure to and engagement of girls in sTEM at an
early age, resulting in lower numbers of women in sTEM - "Many
girls and women report that they are not interested in science and
engineering," wrote Hill et al. "In a 2009 poll of young people

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NSBE Magazine - Winter 2015

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