IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 13

1 kW
400 Ah, 48 Vdc
(19.20 kWh)

Station
Batteries

Controller
1 kW

Power
Supplies
Diversion
Load

Inverter
3 kW, 230 Vac, 50 Hz

Charge
Controllers
w/MPPT

Energy Kiosk
Loads

1.41 kW
North Facing

1.41 kW
East Facing

Portable
Battery Kits
17 Ah (208 Wh) Each

Data Acquisition,
Broadcast
48-Vdc Bus

Headmaster
Loads

230-Vac Bus

Figure 8. A schematic of the energy kiosk in Muhuru Bay, Kenya.

location and proximity to Lake Victoria.
Two 1-kW wind turbines and 12 235-W
PV panels supply electricity through
separate charge controllers to a 48-V,
400-Ah (19.2-kWh) stationary flooded
lead-acid battery bank. The wind turbines are made in Kenya and sit atop
12-m tilt-up guyed towers.
A 3-kW inverter (230 Vac, 50 Hz)
distributes power to two locations:
the energy kiosk and the headmaster's house. Supplying power to a residence in addition to the kiosk is
somewhat unusual for an energy
kiosk, but in this case it reinforces
the dual goals of electricity provision
and support of KCA.
The PBKs are recharged in the
kiosk using an external off-the-shelf
power supply that converts the ac
from the inverter to approximately
16 Vdc. The dc output of each power
supply is connected to a PBK, which
uses its own internal charge controller
to recharge its battery (see Figure 9). A
PBK discharged deep enough for its
low-voltage disconnect to actuate
requires approximately 330 Wh over

Figure 9. The portable battery kits are charged on shelves inside the energy kiosk. (Source:
Eli Patten).

9 h to charge, including external
power supply losses. Figure 10 shows
the charging profile measured at the
dc side of the power supply.
The design of an energy kiosk can
be challenging as it is difficult to predict how frequently and in what
	

state of charge the PBKs will be
returned. A number of local factors
influence this, such as the distance
that customers must travel to reach
the kiosk and their electricity demand
patterns. An energy kiosk must be
designed to have appropriate power
IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / march 2 0 1 5

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015

IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 1
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IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover4
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2017
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2017
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2015
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