IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 15

like to thank the volunteers from
kiloWatts for Humanity (kWH) for
their dedication to the Muhuru Bay
energy kiosk.

For Further reading

Figure 14. The PBK being picked up after being charged. (Source: Steve Szablya.)

shown in Figure 13. The salary is paid
to two employees who manage and
operate the kiosk (Figure 14).
The fee structure for the PBK program must be sufficient to pay for the
expenses. The price point for the PBK
rental is 1,100 Kenyan shillings (KES)
(US$12.50) per month with an enrollment fee of 500 KES (US$5.68). These
price points were informed by a preinstallation survey, community focus
groups, and financial projections for
the business. Again, the price per kilowatt hour of electricity is high by
American and European standards,
but it is only somewhat above what
an average Kenyan household spends
on kerosene, candles, and small dry
cell batteries of 933 KES (US$10.61)
each month. If the projections hold
true in the long term, an average surplus of US$160 per month will be
given to the school.
Upfront monthly subscription fees
were somewhat unusual to the local
community. However this model has
several advantages over a pay-as-yougo structure: there is no incentive to
limit the number of recharges by
deeply discharging the battery; it
streamlines the bookkeeping and
reduces the number of financial
transactions that must be tracked.

The long-term sustainability of
the Muhuru Bay energy kiosk, like
any development project, will
depend on several factors. The technical and economic details discussed
here are only pieces of the comprehensive sustainability plan for the
energy kiosk. Organizations and individuals seeking to become involved
in energy development are strongly
encouraged to plan for sustainability
at the outset of any project to have
an enduring impact on the lives of
the people it is intended to serve.

conclusions
Sub-Saharan Africa presents obstacles
and opportunities for electrification.
The architectures, technologies, and
business models presented in this
article are but some of those found in
this dynamic and rapidly evolving
space. The electricity itself is not a
panacea for poverty, but it can be
thoughtfully coupled with education,
job creation, and empowerment to
achieve benefits beyond the light bulb.

acknowledgments
Portions of this work were supported by the Alstom Foundation for the
Environment, IEEE Smart Villages,
and Seattle University. We would

International Energy Agency, "Energy
for all: Financing access for the poor,"
in World Energy Outlook, Oct. 2011.
H. Louie, P. Dauenhauer, M. Wilson,
and A. Zomers, "Eternal light: Ingredients for sustainable off-grid energy
development," IEEE Power Energy Mag.,
vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 70-78, July 2014.
V. Van Acker, S. J. Szablya, H. Louie,
J. McLean Sloughter, and A. S. Pirbhai,
"Survey of energy use and costs in
rural Kenya for community microgrid
business model development," in Proc.
2014 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conf. (GHTC), 10-13 Oct. 2014, pp.
166-173.
W. Maathai, The Challenge for Africa.
New York: Pantheon Books, 2009.

Biographies
Henry Louie (hlouie@ieee.org) is an
associate professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering at Seattle University,
Washington.
Elizabeth O'Grady (eogrady@
powergen-re.com) is a business
development associate at PowerGen
Renewable Energy in Nairobi, Kenya.
Vincent Van Acker (vincent.van.
acker@alstom.com) is a lead delivery
engineer in distribution automation at
Alstom Grid in Redmond, Washington.
Steve Szablya (s.szablya@ieee.org)
is an adjunct professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering at Seattle University,
Washington.
Nirupama Prakash Kumar (nirupama.pkumar@yahoo.com) is a
senior operations engineer at Wind
Logics, a subsidiary of Next Era Energy, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Robin Podmore (robin@incsys.com) is
the president of Incremental Systems
Corporation, Seattle, Washington.

IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / march 2 0 1 5

15



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015

IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 4
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 5
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 6
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 7
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 8
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 9
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 10
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 11
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 12
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 13
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 14
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 15
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 16
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 17
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 18
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 19
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 20
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 21
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 22
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 23
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 24
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 25
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 26
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 27
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 28
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 29
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 30
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 31
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 32
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 33
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 34
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 35
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 36
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 37
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 38
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 39
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 40
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 41
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 42
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 43
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 44
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 45
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 46
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 47
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 48
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 49
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 50
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 51
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 52
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 53
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 54
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 55
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 56
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 57
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 58
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 59
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 60
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 61
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 62
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 63
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 64
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 65
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 66
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 67
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 68
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 69
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 70
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 71
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 72
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 73
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 74
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 75
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 76
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 77
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 78
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 79
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 80
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 81
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 82
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 83
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 84
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 85
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 86
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 87
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 88
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 89
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 90
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 91
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 92
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 93
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 94
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 95
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 96
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2013
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com