IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 21

Per Capita Electricity Consumption-Generation Resources
1,000

Electricity Consumption (kWh/d/p)

Wyoming

0.001 W/m2
0.01 W/m2

0.1 W/m2
1 W/m2

PV-10 W/m2
United States and States

Iowa
Texas
100

Colorado
Tri-State

Hawaii

New York

Washington, D.C.
New Jersey
Los Angeles

United States
California

New York City

United States
Rural

10

1
1

10

100

1,000

10,000

Population Density (People/km2)

Figure 2. The U.S. state- and city-level per capita electricity consumption in relation to population density and available renewable energy
resources per square kilometer.

Per Capita Energy
Consumption Versus Generation Resources

1,000
Energy Consumption (kWh/d/p)

control both the generation and load for system balancing.
This is the zero net energy (ZNE) home model and can be
achieved with existing technologies. If the costs continue to
come down as in recent years, the single prosumer
microgrid will be very popular in rural areas.
Next is the neighborhood microgrid, in which a few
homes can pool together the generation resources to meet
their demands. A modest investment in electric wiring is
needed to connect the homes together. The neighborhood
energy management system will be a little more sophisticated to balance the generation and load for the collection of
homes. The generators and storage might not be colocated
in the homes but will be close by. The neighborhood
microgrid can have both ZNE and non-ZNE homes. But it is
a ZNE neighborhood and does not import or export energy
across the neighborhood boundary.
Next is the community microgrid, in which tens to hundreds of homes and buildings are connected together. Larger
solar systems might be built and shared in the community.
More electric wirings are built to connect the homes together. More sophistication is needed in the energy management
system. The community microgrid is a ZNE community that
includes both ZNE and non-ZNE homes and both ZNE and
non-ZNE neighborhoods. It does not import or export energy
across the community boundary.
Up to this point, the microgrid systems are mostly peer to
peer, without the need for a substation and transmission. The
substation microgrid looks more like a traditional distribution
system operating in island mode. If transmission is expanded

Rural,
Developed 1

100

Rural,
Developing 3

10

1

1

Urban,
Developed 2

Urban,
Developing 4

10
100
Population Density (People/km2)
0.001 W/m2
0.01 W/m2
0.1 W/m2

1,000

1 W/m2
PV-10 W/m2

Figure 3. The grouping of countries and regions into four categories
with distinct energy consumption profiles.

to the region and connected, then the substation microgrid
can operate in both grid-connected and island mode.
This is not meant to be an exhaustive list of microgrid configurations but just some examples to highlight the key message that microgrid-based systems can be built modularly. At
IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / marC h 2 0 1 5

21



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015

IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 1
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IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2017
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2015
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2014
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