IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 27

Analyzed Scenario
For FESS sizing purposes, only the operating conditions that
provide the largest transient frequency variations need to be
analyzed. To include a maximum PV penetration, only the
expected load at noon was considered. Summer was
excluded since, during this season, the load is typically higher due to tourist activities. The PV generation was assumed
to be at 100% of the installed power, and 90% of the load was
considered for the wind parks, totaling 2 and 1 MW of PV
and wind power generation, respectively. In the analyzed
scenario, this production represents 65% of renewable power
penetration. Because of security operating procedures, a
minimum of two diesel units were required to be in operation, providing a total thermal spinning reserve of 7 MW.

Analyzed Disturbances
In this study, the foreseen power variations include not
only the most severe major power loss, caused by a sudden
FR.
Por tu
ga

l

Azores (PT.)

Spain

d.

Me

Madeira (PT.)

Mo

Canary
(ES.)

ara

Algeria

nS
ah

Atlantic
Ocean

co

roc

ARONES
MAC
IA

Porto Santo is the northernmost and easternmost island of
the archipelago of Madeira, located in the Atlantic Ocean
southwest of Europe and west of Africa. It is over 14 km in
length and a bit under 8 km in width. With a total area of
42 km2, it is home to about 5,500 residents. The power system of Porto Santo is based on a thermal power station running on fuel (four groups with a total installed capacity of 20
MVA), two wind farms comprising squirrel cage induction
generators with a total installed capacity of 1.11 MVA, and
two PV power plants with 1 MWp installed capacity each.
Presently, there are some low load scenarios in this
power system that may create a high penetration of
wind and solar PV power production. To prevent frequency stability problems for these expected scenarios, a fastacting frequency control system was considered to be
installed in Porto Santo Island. This control system must
be able to provide a large amount of power during a short
period of time (from seconds to a few minutes) by some
energy storage system having a high power capacity and
no special site requirements such as flywheels, batteries,
or supercapacitors. Flywheels present a long life (around
20 years) even under operating scenarios where they
have to constantly provide control actions, being therefore a more cost-effective solution than batteries. Like
flywheels, supercapacitors have a long life with negligible deterioration. However, increasing the supercapacitor
low energy density is still a challenge for developers. In
the present work, an FESS solution was adopted because
of its technology maturity and market availability for
performing frequency control in power systems.
In the proposed methodology, for the control actions of
the FESS, a primary frequency control action was considered, defined by a speed-droop characteristic, as presented
in Figure 2. In such a model, the inverter operates with a
unitary power factor; the system frequency deviation Tf
is used to adapt the active power charging/discharging of
the FESS. The FESS sizing comprises defining the minimum necessary values of storing energy capacity (En in
megajoules) and the nominal value for the production/
consumption of active power (Pn in megawatts), and also
coping with the values of the FESS control parameters,
such as frequency deadband (FDB in hertz) and speed
droop (R in hertz per megawatt), to ensure system security.
The FESS sizing was obtained from the dynamic simulation of the power system for expected operating conditions with a high penetration of renewables, considering
the foreseen wind and PV power variations and different
possibilities for the FESS under operation. These possibilities comprise the set of En/Pn values available in the market that are appropriate to perform automatic frequency

ter

Sizing of an FESS for Porto Santo Island

control in power systems. Each single FESS was considered to have a storing energy capacity of 15 MJ and the
following alternative nominal active power values:
{0.5; 1; 1.5; 2} MW. A typical value of 0.1 Hz was considered
for the FDB, and the range [0.5/Pn; 2/Pn] Hz/MW was considered for the value of the R parameter. Because of the
small size of this power system, the electrical location of
the FESS was not an issue for this study.

We
s

by a progressive integration of renewables and EVs. Within
this scenario, the identified solutions, both hardware and
software, constitute products with high technological value
to be transferred to the industry.

Mauritania
Mali
Senegal
Cape Verde

G.

Figure 1. The location of the archipelagos of Madeira and Azores in
the North Atlantic. (Adapted from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Macaronesia.)
IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / March 2 0 1 5

27


http://en.wikipedia.org/

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015

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