IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015 - 29

The FESS sizing
was obtained from
the dynamic
simulation of the
power system for
expected operating
conditions with a
high penetration
of renewables.

stored energy in the FESS runs out after
this time, leading to a sudden end of
the FESS control action.

Final FESS Sizing Results

also comprises several hydro power
plants, having a total installed capacity
around 60 MVA, and some minihydro
plants with a maximum total production of 0.9 MW. The largest hydro
power plant is also equipped with four
pumped units that, when connected,
have a constant consumption of
3.7 MW each. Wind power production
is provided from ten wind parks, comprising different technologies such as
squirrel-cage or doubly fed induction
generators and permanent magnet
synchronous generators. These provide a total wind power installed
capacity of approximately 45 MW.
There are still two PV power plants,
totaling 15 MW of maximum PV power production.
In a near-future scenario, a significant increase of
renewable generation is expected for Madeira Island,
mainly provided by wind and solar PV power plants. To
reach feasible dispatch solutions for these future scenarios, having high wind/PV power penetration, new pumped
hydro power plants are also planned to be installed. However, this high wind/PV power penetration will also create
new expected power disturbances that may jeopardize the
security of this power system by provoking frequency stability problems.
In this study, fast frequency control functionalities are
considered for the new expected pumped hydro power
plants by assuming that these will be variable-speed units

The results demonstrate that an FESS
of 15 MJ/1 MW with an FDB of 0.1 Hz
and a speed droop of 1 Hz/MW provides the necessary control action to
avoid security problems in the power
system under study. They also reveal
that having an oversizing value for
the FESS active nominal power, or an
undersized value for the speed droop,
is not recommended: this may lead
to a faster draining off of the FESS
stored energy during the time when
it is still performing crucial frequency control actions.

Including Variable Speed and Frequency control
in Pumped hydro Units of Madeira Island
Madeira is the largest island of its archipelago with an
area of about 750 km2, a length of about 60 km, and a
width of 20 km. It has around 260,000 inhabitants, but the
population increases considerably with the coming of
tourists during the New Year festivities and the summer
months. The capital, Funchal, is home to almost half of
the island's total population.
Presently, the power system of Madeira comprises several
thermal power stations with a total installed capacity
around 200 MVA, including a waste-to-energy power plant. It

-0.1
-0.3
-0.5
-0.7
-0.9
-1.1
-1.3
-1.5
-1.7
-1.9

FESS (Pn = 1 MW)
FESS (Pn = 1.5 MW)
FESS (Pn = 2 MW)

∆f (Hz)

∆f (Hz)

Without FESS
FESS (Pn = 0.5 MW)
FESS (Pn = 1 MW)

0

20

40

60

80

100

-0.1
-0.3
-0.5
-0.7
-0.9
-1.1
-1.3

0

20

40

E (MJ)

15
10
5
0

60

80

100

t(s)
(b)

t(s)
(a)

0

20

40

60

80

100

FESS (Pn = 0.5 MW)
FESS (Pn = 1 MW)
FESS (Pn = 1.5 MW)
FESS (Pn = 2 MW)

t (s)
(c)
Figure 4. The dynamic simulation results for the major power loss, with/without an FESS with En = 15 MJ, R = 1 Hz/Pn, and FDB = 0.1 Hz,
including different Pn values: (a) the time evolution of system frequency deviation without an FESS, or with an FESS of 0.5 MW or 1 MW; (b) the
time evolution of system frequency deviation with an FESS of 1 MW, 1.5 MW, or 2 MW; and (c) the time evolution of the FESS stored energy for
different Pn values of the FESS.
IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / March 2 0 1 5

29



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - March 2015

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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2020
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2018
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