IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 107

so-called "EEI" companies that were
franchised in cities across the nation
after the success of the original Edison
installation in lower Manhattan.
The Citizen's Company constructed a new station at DeKalb Avenue
and Rockwell Place, while the Edison Company had large stations on
Lexington Avenue and also on Pearl
Street (see Figure 3). The similarity of those Brooklyn street names to
thoroughfares in Manhattan has been
the source of much confusion over the
years, especially for Pearl Street, given
the duplication of power plant names in
neighboring boroughs.

Progress
Distribution for general loads apparently was the standard 120/240-V
"Edison" three-wire dc system, but the
exploration of ac was rapid. The first
ac installation appears to have been un-

january/february 2016

dertaken by the Citizen's Company in
1895. As with any such installation of
that period, the issue of reactive power
management and power factor correction were major concerns. An effort,
both informational and educational,
was undertaken that year with a demonstration of power factor correction at
the DeKalb Avenue station.
An alternator was started, and several universal-type motors were connected as loads. The connection of an
induction motor increased the current
drawn by 50%, not unusual in an era
when induction motors were still in
development. An unloaded synchronous motor was placed on the circuit
as a synchronous condenser (as capacitors were then termed), and the current
drawn declined by 30%. The audience
reaction was unexpected; at least one
experienced electrician unfamiliar with
ac system theory demanded to see the

additional generator he believed was
hidden. That demonstrated the need for
a better professional understanding of
ac system theory.
The Municipal Company installed
ac in an 1897 extension of the Ainslie
Street station to supply induction motors in factories along the waterfront
in the Greenpoint and Williamsburg
sections of Brooklyn. Unlike most ac
distribution, which was two phase owing to the difficulty of balancing lighting loads on three-phase lines at that
time, the Ainslie installation was the
more efficient three phase as it supplied
only motors. It operated at 60 Hz, unusual for motors as lower frequencies
reduced heat losses in the machines of
that time. A harbinger of future practice, it may have been the first threephase 60-Hz system in the entire New
York region supplied today by the Consolidated Edison Company (Con Ed).

ieee power & energy magazine

107



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 105
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 106
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 107
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 108
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 109
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 110
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 113
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 114
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 115
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 116
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 117
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 118
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 119
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 120
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 121
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 122
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 123
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 124
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 125
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 126
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 127
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 128
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070820
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050620
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030420
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com