IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 112

figure 7. The Hicks Street substation with a pair of motor-generator sets in the
foreground (from Electrical World, 25 May 1911, p. 1,312).

Avenue within the property of Thomas
E. Murray's manufacturing complex.
Also unique to Brooklyn were "seasonal" substations; the largest, at West
12th Street, supplied the Coney Island area
and the huge Luna Park amusement park.
It was rated at 5,000 kW for peak summer
demand but was lightly loaded the rest of
the year. A smaller plant at the Dreamland
amusement park was rated at 3,200 kW
and operated only five months a year. As a
result of such loads, the system peak came

figure 8. The stylized company logo
adopted by the Brooklyn Edison Company after the 1911 reorganization that
joined several electric utility companies
in Brooklyn (photo courtesy of Robert
Lobenstein).
112

ieee power & energy magazine

in September when the parks were still
open rather than in December, which was
the norm for most utilities in the northern
United States at that time.
While all this was underway, a revolution was occurring in the electric power
industry. Murray had noted, in 1915, that
the substations and also the heavy cable
needed for the high current required for
120/240-V dc distribution had come to
comprise half of the fixed-cost investment in a system. Conversely, new developments in ac distribution made it more
attractive and practical in areas with a
dense concentration of load. Many companies were developing distribution networks to manage the reactive power losses that plagued ac distribution schemes
in areas of dense load concentration. The
presence of the ac distribution in four dc
substations would seem to indicate that
the Brooklyn Company was pursuing
an approach similar to that of the Commonwealth Edison Company of Chicago.
There, the dc territory was limited by specific borders with an intent to eventually
reduce the dc territory.

Bold Moves
In 1919, the Edison Electric Illuminating
Company of Brooklyn, the Kings County Electric Light and Power Company (a

holding company that financed it), and
smaller subsidiaries were formally reorganized as the Brooklyn Edison Company. The revised name appeared on
company signs at the 66th Street power
plant by 1911 (see Figure 8). Matthew
S. Sloan, an engineer and utility executive from the South and also a protégé of
Murray with experience in the New York
Edison Company, was selected to head
the reorganized company. Under his
management, significant developments
were initiated.
Following the development of new
mathematical equations, three-phase lines
could accommodate efficiently any singlephase load. Most utility systems anticipated the substitution of three-phase systems for the two-phase lines that were
then standard for 60-Hz distribution.
The change effected a 50% increase in
transmission capacity for the same investment in copper. Sloan initiated the
conversion of Brooklyn in 1923.
Total system capacity was 190 MW.
The Gold Street plant was rated at
125 MW, three-phase, 25 Hz, 6,600 V.
Distribution capacity was divided, with
96-MW dc from substation converters
and 10-20-MW ac from the frequency
changers that supplied the new ac customers in dc territory. The 66th Street
Union station was rated at 65 MW, two
phase, 62.5 Hz for ac customers in southern Brooklyn. Overall, ac distribution
capacity in Brooklyn averaged 80 MW
or almost half of the connected load.
The company then had 95,980 kW
of dc substation converter capacity supported by more than 60,000 Ah of battery reserve. Sloan noted that the proportion of dc load had declined rapidly,
and the only exception was a new dc
substation required to meet increased
demand from industries related to the
Brooklyn Navy Yard.
Sloan noted the national trend of dc
retirement due to the increasing cost and
reduced reliability of dc systems and
significant improvements in the reliability and efficiency of ac distribution.
In 1923, he initiated the change of dc
customers to ac with compensation to
the customer for any equipment replacement required. Commercial and residenjanuary/february 2016



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 105
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 106
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 107
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 108
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 109
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 110
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 113
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 114
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 115
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 116
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 117
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 118
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 119
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 120
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 121
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 122
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 123
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 124
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 125
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 126
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 127
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 128
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070820
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050620
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030420
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com