IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 44

The use of meter events, sensor readings, and error records
to enable remote troubleshooting may indicate that remote
corrective actions are feasible.
captured by a smart meter, a system was needed to uniquely
and unambiguously identify a description of each quantity,
event, or control being conveyed. To achieve this, each type
is named by a string that is defined using a normative "dot"
notation, where each position within the dot string is used to
describe some aspect of the quantity. in the case of reading
types, there are many factors beyond simple units of measure that factor into a quantity that is read by a meter, including but not limited to the following:
✔ macro period, e.g., billing period, daily, monthly, seasonal, and specified
✔ aggregate, i.e., is this an average, maximum, minimum, or excess
✔ measuring period, e.g., a number of minutes, hours,
or interval
✔ accumulation, i.e., is this value a bulk quantity, cumulative, summation, or instantaneous
✔ flow direction
✔ unit of measure
✔ commodity, e.g. electricity, water, gas, and Co2
✔ measurement kind, e.g., frequency, energy, losses,
voltage, and angle
✔ time of use
✔ harmonics
✔ phase
✔ currency.
Table 1 describes a few commonly used reading types.
similarly, codes are defined for reading qualities, events,
and controls. a normative set of commonly used codes are
defined in the annexes of ieC 61968-9, as well as the information needed to define codes that currently have no normative definition. in all cases, the name (defined using the dot

notation) must be parsed by a receiving application, as the
primary purpose of the name is to differentiate the different
reading types while avoiding the ad hoc definition of a set of
likely ambiguous set of codes.

CIM Messages for Meter Data
ieC standard 61968-9 defines a number of message payload
definitions that are used for the bidirectional communication
of meter information within the enterprise. The payload of
a message is the information of interest to a target application. These payloads are derived from the Cim in the form of
Xml schemas (Xsds), and are often referred to as Cim profiles. There still needs to be a standard for the conveyance of
these payloads between the systems using a variety of communications transports. for this reason, ieC standard 6968100 was developed. given a message payload definition, ieC
61968-100 is used to define
✔ a common message envelope that can be used to convey the message payload
✔ a standard header within the message envelope that
describes the nature and control aspects of the message
✔ a basic set of integration patterns that can be used to
convey the messages
✔ recommendations for leveraging transport technologies such as (but certainly not limited to) web services
and Java message service.
figure 2 shows four examples of integration patterns that
are defined by ieC 61968-100, where an enterprise service bus
(esB) is leveraged for integration. depending on the transport, these integration patterns might also be implemented
without an intermediary such as an esB. as anticipated, there
are new transport mechanisms that are coming into use since

table 1. A few commonly used reading types.

44

Reading Type Name

Description of Reading Type

0.0.0.1.1.1.12.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.3.72.0

bulkQuantity forward electricitySecondaryMetered energy (kWh)

8.8.53.6.1.1.8.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.3.38.0

billingPeriod maximum fixed Block 15 Min indicating forward
electricitySecondaryMetered demand (kW)

0.0.2.4.1.1.12.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.3.72.0

fifteenMinute deltaData forward electricitySecondaryMetered energy (kWh)

0.0.0.0.0.1.11.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.109.0

electricitySecondaryMetered energization (status)

0.0.0.6.0.1.54.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.29.0

indicating electricitySecondaryMetered voltage (V)

0.0.0.1.0.1.131.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.111.0

bulkQuantity electricitySecondaryMetered loadInterrupt (count)

0.0.2.4.1.1.12.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.3.72.0

fifteenMinute deltaData forward electricitySecondaryMetered energy (kWh)

ieee power & energy magazine

january/february 2016



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