IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 78

As the industry became more deregulated,
the base canonical CIM grew to support market management
systems as well as other external systems.

was added in base cIm to support object registries. XsD
syntax also allows multiple profiles for a single type (e.g.,
a street address with only street name, street number, and
postal code and a street address with all the available descriptors), defined locally or globally. finally, the work is in progress to support modularity of payload types by enabling the
inclusion of a "profile snippet" into multiple profiles. a sample instance data that may comply to an XsD-based profile is
shown in figure 8(b).
Due to its widespread usage in the industry, the majority
of new XsD based profiles for the standard cIm are defined
using XsD syntax, in particular those that support processes
outside network model exchanges. The syntax is equally
well suited for configuration ("static"/bulk) and for operation ("dynamic"/online) data exchanges, as illustrated with
metering profiles from Iec 61968-9. on the challenging side,
there is at present no native mechanism for referencing objects
and referencing may be exclusively through dedicated naming classes. note that, in theory, a profile defined for use with
rDfs syntax can also be expressed with XsD syntax; however going from XsD to rDfs syntax is possible only in a
special case where the profile gets defined as if it were for
rDfs syntax, i.e., flat, with exclusive use of references.

Messaging and the IEC 61968-100
Web Service and XSD Structures
once the message profile standards were generated, it
became necessary to define how these messages would be
implemented and integrated into the utility enterprise. while
the existing XsD message profiles were complete, these
standards lacked the detailed information required to apply
them in the enterprise integration. To address this issue, Iec
standard 61968-100 was developed, which defines a common message envelope composed of the following interface
components:
✔ the content (or payload) of data exchanges among the
actors
✔ the contents of the header and optional request/reply
constructs
✔ the definition of the transport used in the exchange.
once we have defined these components and how they
will be implemented, we can specify concrete data exchange
payloads and all actors concerned with any given payload can
progress in parallel and independently of each other. They can
also implement and test their local applications independently
as long as everybody programs to the agreed interfaces.
78

ieee power & energy magazine

To allow for this level of flexibility, it is best to adopt an
interface specification whose technologies are independent
of the hardware platform, operating system, or programming
language. This is the approach also recommended and followed by utility enterprise integration standards such as Iec
61968. In the next section, we will dissect a message derived
from one such sample interface.

Anatomy of an Interface
we will analyze a message compliant with an interface
that has the properties discussed above. The left side of
figure 9 shows the general approach to defining communication interfaces by using encapsulation or nesting. Those
familiar with the open systems Interconnection reference
model for communication protocols will recognize the idea:
the object of the exchange (payload) is nested deepest and
wrapped into some kind of envelope. That envelope then
becomes the object of exchange (payload) one level up and
is again wrapped into another kind of envelope. we have
denoted three levels in our example:
✔ l1, the first level, that we will call domain interface
level (message payload)
✔ l2, the second level, that we will call message interface level (message envelope)
✔ l3, the third level, that we will refer to as transport
interface level (transport message).
The fact that we can clearly separate the levels means
that we can independently develop and test "real" software
at each level, while "mocking" the functionality of the other
levels. This is an important aspect of any project execution
or implementation effort.
let us now look at the right-hand side of figure 9. This
shows a set of very concrete technology choices.
✔ The domain interface level l1 reflects the payload whose
type is called endDevicecontrols, and it has been derived
from the canonical distribution cIm (defined in Iec
61968-9 and Iec 61968-11, respectively) and is compliant with the w3c XsD format. That specific domain payload allows an actor to send control actions to end devices
(such as smart meters) by providing the identity of the
end device and the program level for demand response.
✔ The message interface level l2 reflects the message envelope expressed also in w3c XsD format
as defined in Iec 61968-100. This is the level where
we need to provide extra information required by the
software that handles message exchanges on a bus and
january/february 2016



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