IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 84

figure 1. A vision of the integrated grid that takes full advantage of widespread distributed resources.

distributed resources and the power system infrastructure.
There are both beneficial aspects of this interaction (e.g.,
storage ability to manage demand and contribute to flexibility requirements) as well as impacts that can result in
investment requirements to manage (e.g., voltage regulation requirements caused by PV generation variations). The
interaction is dependent on the specific characteristics of the
distribution circuits (design and equipment), existing loads,
time variations of loads and generation, environmental conditions, and other local factors.
The integrated grid will optimize energy production, including the integration of widespread distributed
resources with more central generation and the operation
of the power system. The concept of "local energy optimization" applies to local facilities and groups of facilities
managing local resources in an optimum way. The integrated grid takes this one step further and optimizes these
resources with the needs and operation of the entire grid.
The integrated grid requires many new systems that will
facilitate this optimization:
✔ distribution management systems (DMSs) that include
DER integration
✔ advanced voltage and var control that integrates the
functionality of smart inverters and distributed energy
storage
✔ demand response (DR) systems and advanced customer interfaces that allow customer resources to support both local distribution systems and overall grid
performance
✔ energy storage management systems that help realize the multiple value streams associated with energy
storage systems
84

ieee power & energy magazine

✔ control of distributed resources in combination with

microgrid controllers to support local power system
operation for resiliency and reliability
✔ advanced forecasting for both customer load and distributed generation for optimal operation of the grid
and scheduling of other generation resources
✔ real-time simulation systems that integrate distributed
resource operation for optimizing system performance
✔ market- and pricing-based systems for managing distributed resources.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has
proposed a smart grid conceptual model (see Figure 2 from
IEC 62913-1), providing the basis for defining smart grid
business requirements associated with these new systems.
These and many other systems must interface with distributed control systems and resources on the grid. This article
focuses on the architecture and the data interfaces that will
make this integration possible, while allowing innovation in
the development of these and other valuable applications.

Architecture for the Integrated Grid
The National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart
Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP) created a smart grid
architecture conceptual model that defines domains, actors,
and stakeholders associated with the smart grid operation.
This provided an excellent framework for the integrated
grid and was further refined by the Reference Architecture
Working Group under the European Smart Grid Coordination Group, which proposed the Smart Grid Architecture
Model (SGAM) (see Figure 3).
The smart grid is a complex system of systems, serving
the diverse needs of many stakeholders. It must support
january/february 2016



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover4
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