IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - 89

january/february 2016

ieee power & energy magazine

89

figure 7. Examples of stakeholders associated with the integration of distributed resources.

Distribution System
Maintenance
May Lock Out DER System
During Power System
Maintenance

Generates Electrical Energy
Provides Ancillary Services
Responds to Control Commands
Responds to Protection Actions

DER Units and Plants

Monitoring of Actual
Energy and Ancillary
Services

Metering, Settlements,
and Auditing

Manage
Metering Data

Retail Energy
Provider
Buys and Sells Energy
Ancillary Services
and Billing

Meters Interval Energy
Matches Metering to Schedules
Audits Settlements

Ensures DER System and
Its Protection Controls Are
Operating Correctly

DER Device Maintenance

Turns DER Units On and Off
Sets DER Generation Levels
Monitors DER System
Responds to Ancillary Service
Requests and Bids

Implements DER Schedule
Monitors DER System
Emergency Trip of DER System
Evaluation of Distribution System
Safety and Efficiency with DER

Operate According to
Market Pricing Signals

Manages and Buys
and Sells
Ancillary Services

Owns DER and May
Sell Energy and/or
Ancillary Services

Operate According to
Tariffs or Contracts

DER Aggregator

DER Owner

DER Operator (e.g.,
Facility or Aggregator)

Operate for Safety,
Reliability, and Efficiency

Utility Distribution
and DER Planning
Plans Distribution System and
Establishes DER
Interconnections Requirements

Distribution System
Operations

Manufactures and
Implementers
Design DER Products
Implements DER Systems
Upgrades DER Systems

Requires or Incentivizes
DER Services Through
Bulk Market

ISO/RTO/TSO



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2016 - Cover3
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