IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2017 - 26

Hybrid systems may take many different forms, from dual
heaters in buildings all the way to large district heating systems with combined heat-and-power (CHP) plants, fuel boilers, and electric heaters.

The Flexibility Potential
of Heating and Cooling
Together, heating and cooling represent a huge part of
energy consumption. However, the heat system is often not
considered as a single system, but rather-due to the historic
emphasis on energy supply-as subsystems of different supply sources (e.g., gas, coal, and electricity). Therefore, size
and flexibility potential are often overlooked. According to
2014 Eurostat figures, in the European Union (EU) around

Primary Energy Use

Final Energy Use

22%

30%

40%

45%
33%

29%

Heat

Transport

Electricity

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Residential

Local Heating and Cooling

In

du
st
r
Tr
an y
sp
or
S
t
Ag erv
ic
ro
e
Sp /For s
es
ac
try
e
W Hea
at
er ting
H
ea
tin
El
ec
g
tri Co
ok
c
Ap
in
g
pl
ia
nc
e
Li
gh s
tn
in
g

Energy Use (Mtoe)

figure 1. The primary and final energy use in the EU for
2014 (based on Eurostat figures) divided into three main
categories of energy end use.

Wood

Heat

Gas

Coal

Oil

Electricity

figure 2. The final EU-28 energy use for 2014 (based on
Eurostat figures). The residential sector is split into components using 2008 data (ODYSSEE). Losses in transformation
and transfer are not included. "Heat" as energy use refers
to the heat being a conversion by-product from, e.g., a
CHP plant or an industrial process.
26

30% of primary energy is used to produce heat, 30% is
used in the transport sector, and 40% is used for electricity,
including electricity to heat (see Figure 1).
The share of electricity in primary energy consumption
is higher than in final energy consumption because a large
proportion of energy is wasted in electricity generation processes using the Carnot cycle (Figure 1). The opposite is true
for heat, because nearly 100% of the energy in fuel is converted to useful heat. The large share of heat in the final
energy use translates to a large potential for power system
flexibility. For example, the value of surplus wind or solar
power is zero, but if that electricity can be used to replace
heating fuels, the value rises to the price of the fuel. The
value is affected by the conversion efficiency-the value
gets higher if heat pumps are used instead of less-efficient
direct-resistance heaters. However, there are investment
costs that need to be factored in as well.
Heat is consumed in most end-use sectors, except transport,
but its use is very diverse. In residential and commercial buildings, heat is used for space and water heating. In the industrial sector, heat additionally provides process heat. In terms
of flexibility, some demands are more amenable to being controlled than others. Figure 2 divides final energy use (heat, in
particular) among the EU's 28 member states (EU-28) into
several categories. Most heat in the EU is generated from natural gas, while coal, oil and biomass make up much of the rest.
In Europe, cooling demand is considerably lower
than heating demand. However, it is growing quickly with
increasing space-cooling requirements and also due to the
heavy urban development in warmer climates and new uses
needed in emerging services and industries, such as cooling
large data centers.
The heating/cooling usage types and demand profiles
will largely impact the flexibility potential, We use the following categories to describe the major parts of the heat/
cooling system:
✔✔ local heating and cooling of buildings
✔✔ district heating and cooling
✔✔ heat for industry.

ieee power & energy magazine

Final energy use in residential buildings is dominated by
space and water heating demand-roughly 80% in Europe
and 60% in the United States. Worldwide, most residential
homes and commercial establishments produce heat locally
within the building using a variety of different heating/cooling technologies and are not connected to district heating
networks. Heating technologies can be mainly differentiated
by their fuel (wood, natural gas, biogas, and electricity) and
conversion process (combustion in a boiler or burner, liquid evaporation for heat pumps, and Joule's law in resistance
heaters). Cooling is generally based on electricity.
The heating/cooling appliance couples the building to
the energy supply system. Because solid and gaseous fuels
can be stored easily over weeks, if not seasons, these supply
january/february 2017



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - January/February 2017

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