IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 30

D

DURING THE LAST FEW YEARS, MANY COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD HAVE SEEN
a massive deployment of distributed energy resources (DERs) in their distribution systems. In certain
regions, penetration has reached levels that increasingly challenge traditional power system management, affecting the overall stability, reliability, and efficiency of grids. The uncoordinated
response of large numbers of DERs may even put overall grid security at risk. This fact was
clearly highlighted by the famous 50.2 Hz problem in Europe: it was discovered that the
simultaneous tripping of several gigawatts of DERs due to a minor overfrequency event
could potentially lead to an undersupply in the European power system so large that
it could not be compensated for by using conventional reserve capacities.
This ongoing development has led to a fundamental paradigm shift
regarding the approach for interconnecting DERs, especially in
Europe. There has been a move away from a "fit it and forget
it" practice and to the active integration of DERs. Today it
has become common consensus among the stakeholders
involved, including grid and system operators as well as
industry, that DERs must be fully integrated into power
system operation to maintain the stable and reliable
operation of distribution grids with high penetrations of DERs. Recent developments in national
grid codes and interconnection specifications
reflect this fundamental paradigm change: new
revisions of the interconnection specifications
now define requirements for advanced DER
functions, including active and reactive power
control, voltage and frequency control, and
dynamic grid support, including fault ridethrough (FRT). While these requirements were
mainly imposed on large-scale DERs connected to high- and medium-voltage (HV/MV)
grids today, the most recent grid codes demand
similar capabilities from small-scale DERs connected to low-voltage (LV) grids.
To overcome the fragmentation of national
DER connection requirements, a new Europewide technical specification is currently being finalized by the European Association of Transmission
System Operators (ENTSO-E). The Requirements for

Lab Tests
By Roland Br√ľndlinger, Thomas Strasser, Georg Lauss,
Andy Hoke, Sudipta Chakraborty, Greg Martin,
Benjamin Kroposki, Jay Johnson, and Erik de Jong
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MPE.2014.2379935
Date of publication: 24 February 2015

30

ieee power & energy magazine

1540-7977/15©2015IEEE

march/april 2015



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