IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 48

CaWaveSMA CbWaveSMA CcWaveSMA

0.2

kA

0.1
0

-0.1
-0.2
S1) PV10

0.4

S1)PV11

S1)PV12

0.24071

0.25729

kV

0.2
0

-0.2
-0.4
0.19099

0.20756

0.22414

0.27386

0.29043

figure 7. PV inverter currents and voltages for a three-phase fault at 12 kV
located about 2 mi away from the POI.

0.2
CaWave SMA
CbWave SMA
CbWave SMA

kV

0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2

(a)
S1) PV10

S1) PV11

S1) PV12

0.4

kV

0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
0.18575

0.2239

0.26206

0.30022 0.33837 0.37653
(b)

0.41469

figure 8. PV inverter currents and voltages for a line-to-line fault at 12 kV
located about 2 mi away from the POI, with a delta high-side transformer on the
inverter (DUT).
48

ieee power & energy magazine

inverter are provided through a grid
simulator, carefully sized according to
the kVA rating of the inverter under
test. In this application, the grid simulator acts as a regenerative, linear power
amplifier, receiving low-level voltage
signals (± 10 V) from the real-time simulator and amplifying the signals to the
inverter ac voltage range (in this case,
480 V). Using this approach, the grid
simulator will be able to sink current
from the DUT (inverter) and recirculate
the PV power production back into the
main power supply. The regenerative
testing approach drastically reduces
power consumption and any need for
extensive heat dissipation.
In the field, the input to the inverter is
typically generated from several arrays
of PV panels providing up to 800-V dc
(open-circuit voltage). In the laboratory
environment, the special current and
voltage characteristics of PV panels are
created by a PV simulator.
In the PHIL test setup used to test
inverter impacts on the area EPS, the
grid simulator voltage is controlled by
the real-time simulator so as to represent
the monitored voltages at the inverter's
point of interconnection (POI). Depending on the nature of the tests, a detailed,
simulated model of the entire area EPS
(distribution circuit) at the mediumvoltage level (12 kV, 25 kV, or 35 kV)
can be used to capture the voltage variations at the POI due to changes in loads,
the operation of voltage control devices,
and power injection by the PV inverter.
The simulated model can also incorporate the interconnection transformer
characteristics and topology essential to
the grid impact evaluation.
To close the loop, the instantaneous inverter currents measured at the
inverter terminals are monitored by the
real-time simulator analog input cards
(using measurement current transformers and linear current and voltage transducers) and injected into the simulated
model at the low side of the interconnection transformer. Such lab tests
must be designed using special care
and consideration to take into account
the possible delays due to various signal conversions within the lab setup. If
march/april 2015



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover4
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