IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 53

PV self-consumption describes the amount of PV energy
that is either directly consumed by local loads or stored in
an additional storage device.

07
/2
0
01 07
/2
0
07 08
/2
01 008
/2
0
07 09
/2
0
01 09
/2
0
07 10
/2
01 010
/2
07 011
/2
0
01 11
/2
0
07 12
/2
01 012
/2
0
07 13
/2
01 013
/2
01
4

Price (cEUR/kWh)

demand as the value of PV grid feed-in decreases with higher performance of different PV storage systems under standard
amounts of PV systems in the system, due to the simultane- test conditions in a manner analogous to that used in testing
ity of PV systems. As storage systems enable the shifting of PV modules.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy
energy, the value of the PV storage systems increases from
an end consumer but also from a system perspective. From a and Energy System Technology (IWES), together with industry
system perspective, additional storage is expected to play a partners, have developed a benchmarking approach that tackrole if RES have reached around 40% (in 2014, 27% accord- les the issues described above and addresses the need to assess
ing to AG Energiebilanzen) of the electricity consumption. the system's performance based on static power values as well
The trade-off between the system perspective and the end- as dynamic energy flows and the underlying control strategy.
consumer perspective has to be dealt with in adjusted regula- Figure 6(a) gives an overview of the component interdependentory schemes in the future. Yet, it has to be highlighted that cies and efficiencies covered by the testing procedure. Figure 6(b)
the business case for increasing direct PV consumption via complements the overall picture by providing additional inforstorage systems heavily relies on the given regulation and mation on currently covered standards.
taxation of the household electricity price. Currently, over
50% of this price is taxes, fees, and the renewable energies PV Systems' Impact on
surcharge, while approximately 25% is grid fees and the rest the Distribution System
is related to generation and marketing cost. Hence, a change The extraordinarily high PV installation rates of the years
in taxation on electricity prices or in-grid fees strongly 2009-2012 led to significant PV penetration scenarios for
impacts the economics of PV systems and PV storage sys- some German distribution grids, with installed generation
tems that would result in different sizing results.
capacities exceeding the annual peak load many times over.
Despite the growing market for such PV battery systems, Figure 7 shows the development of measured active power
the market still lacks standards and approaches for comparing flows recorded at a substation within the service area of the
their performance and efficiency. It
is evident that the large number of
manufacturers worldwide results
Electricity Tariff: Private Households with 2.500-5.000 kWh Annual Consumption
in a wide variety of available sysFeed-In Tariff: EEG-FIT for PV Systems ≤ 10 kWp
tem designs. System-specific tech60
nical characteristics, such as the
Electricity Tariff
battery technology used, inverter
50
Feed-In Tariff
and battery efficiencies, and the
40
design of the overall energy management algorithms, can influence
29.81
30
the achievable self-sufficiency and
Income Margin for
Self-Consumed
performance of PV storage sys20
PV Energy
tems considerably. This holds true
13.68
even for PV storage systems that
10
have identical nameplate ratings
0
for battery capacity, inverter size,
and so on but use different internal
energy management algorithms.
Because of these variations, stanData Sources
dardized test procedures must be
Electricity Tariff: Eurostat, Energiestatistik-Preise, Neue Methode ab 2007
developed to establish a generally
Feed-In Tariff: German Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas,
accepted benchmarking system.
Telecommunications, Post, and Railway
With such a test procedure, objective benchmark results could be figure 4. Development of the German PV FIT and average household electricity
gained by comparing the technical prices, 2007-2014.
march/april 2015

ieee power & energy magazine

53



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover4
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