IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 65

(a)

(b)

figure 1. Large PV systems interconnected to distribution systems in SCE's service territory: (a) a flat roof-mounted and
(b) a ground-mounted, fixed-tilt system. (Photographs courtesy of SCE.) (a) The first 2-MW PV system installed by SCE
under the Solar PV Program (interconnected to the Fontana, California, study circuit). (b) A 5-MW PV system installed by
SCE adjacent to a newly constructed service center (interconnected to the Porterville, California, study circuit).

Voltage Flicker in Volts on 120-V Base

process was developed that uses salient distribution operat- output was investigated. These two advanced PV inverter
ing points, which greatly reduces the data and computational functionalities were chosen because they represent the most
requirements. This study process uses the following five basic forms of PV inverter control that extend beyond current utility practice (i.e., operating at unity power factor)
salient time points of distribution circuit operation:
and were thus implementable in existing PV systems with✔✔ peak daytime circuit load
out the need to upgrade PV inverter controllers or replace
✔✔ minimum daytime circuit load
entire installations of PV inverter hardware. Furthermore,
✔✔ maximum PV generation
✔✔ maximum PV generation/circuit load (peak instanta- the two identified functions fundamentally avoid unintended
neous penetration)
✔✔ maximum PV generation-cirFlicker for Sudden Loss and Return of PVs at Various PF
cuit load (captures the time pe8
riod when worst-case reverse
Max Load 7/26/13
7
flow is likely to occur).
Max PV 8/5/13
In practice, it was found that
Min Load 9/2/13
6
these five salient points often
overlapped, resulting in the need
5
to only study the circuit operation
4
at three or four salient points.
In addition to modeling the
3
Cap Switching
potential impacts of the integra2.8-V Flicker
2
tion of high penetrations of utilIrritability
ity-scale PVs into the three SCE
1
study circuits, the validated cirNoticeability
cuit models and the developed PV
0
100 to 0%
100 to 0%
100 to 0%
impact study process were used
Unity PF
at -0.975 PF
at -0.95 PF
to evaluate options for the direct
100% Fully Rated Step Change at Various Power Factors
mitigation of the impacts using
advanced PV inverter function- figure 2. Minute-over-minute voltage flicker possible due to the complete loss and
ality. Operating the PV inverters return of the 5-MW PV system on the Porterville, California, study circuit related to
that constitute the utility-scale PV voltage changes during capacitor switching and flicker limits (estimated) for specific
systems at off-unity power factor salient circuit operating points and for a range of PV inverter power factor (PF) operor at a constant reactive power ating set points.
march/april 2015

ieee power & energy magazine

65



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 9
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 26
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 31
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 35
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 42
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 49
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2015 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070820
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050620
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030420
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
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