IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - 42

These alternatives to network expansion are very nontraditional
(sometimes referred to as nonwires alternatives) and pose a
challenge to utility planning engineers.
Traditional reliability design incorporates a contingency
factor of N-1 or N-2. (A utility contingency factor of N-1
means that if one distribution feeder or device serving
the load is lost, the system can continue to deliver power
without an outage. Similarly, a contingency factor of N-2,
which is typical for the Con Edison system, requires that
two components can be lost without impacting customers.)
Although there will certainly be some secondary network
distribution system expansions in the Brooklyn-Queens
area shown in Figure 1, one important goal of the Brooklyn-Queens Demand Management (BQDM) program is to
defer spending on overall utility infrastructure.

Background
EDP engineers work with substation engineering and transmission planning departments to ensure that new load can
be served without overloading the grid. In the example of
the Brooklyn-Queens grid, the distribution system serving
this large population area is forecasted to exceed capacity on
peak demand days.
The Con Edison electric distribution forecast in 2014 projected that three separate networks would experience peak
demands greater than system capacity for as many as 12 h

during a 2018 peak day and an increase in overall demand
of 52 MW over the maximum system capacity. Figure 1
highlights the impacted areas and networks within Brooklyn
and Queens and is commonly referred to as the BQDM area.
Figure 2 displays the load duration curve with respect to the
substation capability that BQDM must address. The traditional approach would be for utility planning engineers to
design system capacity upgrades and build new distribution
circuits, typically utilizing "headroom" in other nearby substations and networks; however, in the case of the BQDM area,
the limited headroom in nearby substations meant that a new
substation and subtransmission lines would be required-an
expensive proposition in New York City, where land is at a
premium and installing new underground transmission and
distribution lines is particularly difficult and expensive. An
electrical utility rule of thumb states that underground cables
and equipment cost about ten times more than the equivalent
overhead cables and equipment, and underground equipment
is required in much of New York City. Coupled with the substation costs is the expense of migrating portions of several
BQDM networks to the new substation.
New distribution circuits always require costly substation expansions or the addition of new substations; those, in

Brooklyn and Queens Zone Map
The BQDM Challenge
Solution Must Address 12 h

1
2
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4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
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24

900
850
800
750
700
650
600
550
500

2023 Forecasted Peak Demand
Applied to 2014 DE Curve
2018 Forecasted Peak Demand
Applied to 2014 DE Curve
Capacity

figure 1. A map of the Brooklyn-Queens zones showing
high-load neighborhoods served by three secondary network distribution systems. (Image courtesy of Con Edison.)
42

ieee power & energy magazine

figure 2. The projected demand in the Brooklyn-Queens
area exceeds capacity. (Image courtesy of Con Edison.) DE:
Distribution Engineering.
march/april 2017



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - Cover4
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