IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - 61

©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/ADYNA

By Benjamin
Kroposki,
Brian Johnson,
Yingchen Zhang,
Vahan Gevorgian,
Paul Denholm,
Bri-Mathias Hodge,
and Bryan Hannegan

Achieving a 100%
Renewable Grid
Operating Electric
Power Systems with
Extremely High
Levels of Variable
Renewable Energy

W

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MPE.2016.2637122
Date of publication: 1 March 2017

march/april 2017

1540-7977/17©2017IEEE

W H AT DOES I T M EA N TO ACH I EV E A 10 0%
renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come
close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal
or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids
with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower
include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%),
and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for
decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form
of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall
and geographic topology. Around the world, most good
sites for large hydropower resources have already been
developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as
wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major
ieee power & energy magazine

61


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - 3
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2017 - Cover4
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