IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 26

independent source, making it possible to alarm for unacceptable errors or failures. The benefit of installing CPSM
functionality at NYPA stations relates to reducing asset
operation and maintenance costs. The continuous automated
monitoring of protection systems will both reduce the frequency of unnecessary time-based maintenance and associated labor and travel costs as well as result in efficiency gains
during maintenance by providing real-time, standardized,
and reliable guidance and evaluation for maintenance activities, which are typically labor- and time-intensive tasks. As
a result, this helps to reduce the risk of major failures while
increasing overall reliability in a consistent manner across
existing protection systems.
The continuous automated monitoring of protection systems will also alert substation operators of real-time gradual
degradation in the performance of the protective relaying
system. This capability, when coupled with the state-of-theart asset health monitoring and diagnostics center, could help
mitigate the risk of prolonging fault conditions that cause
major failures, e.g., transformer bushing failures, and thus
reduce any costs associated with repair and replacement.

Digital Substation
As a major step toward enhancing its digital capabilities,
NYPA has initiated several digital substation implementations using projects of various scales and scopes. The digital
substation concept involves digitizing a portion of the substation secondary system by eliminating the majority of ana-

HMI/Concentrator 1

log secondary circuits between the instrument transformers
and protective relays. IEC 61850, Standard for Communication Networks and Systems in Substations, is the framework
around which a digital substation is built. By connecting
the various pieces of field equipment, e.g., circuit breakers,
protective relays, current transformers (CTs), and potential
transformers (PTs) using optical fiber cables, the substation
layout becomes simpler, several safety issues are mitigated,
and, the implementation becomes more cost-effective in the
case of a new substation construction.
The IEC 61850 optical network operates using the Ethernet
protocol. Within this framework, traditional status and command signals are transmitted using a generic object-oriented
substation event (GOOSE). GOOSE is a specific formatting
of data that enables protection status signals to be transmitted
within 4 ms. This is essential to ensure the reliable and timely
operation of interconnected IEDs.
Figure 3(a) and (b) shows the dual-redundant station and
process bus in a digital substation, which provides greater
reliability for critical substations as compared to a single
process bus. The station and process bus systems are implemented using external Ethernet switches, connected together
in a ring configuration. The station bus allows for signals to
be exchanged between the bay-level IEDs and station control, while the process bus allows communication between
the bay-level IEDs and field devices, transducers, and other
equipment. Merging units (MUs) are used to collect signals from various pieces of field equipment, including

HMI/Concentrator 2

MMS-Only Communication
(SCADA Commands,
Monitoring, and Event Retrieval)

GOOSE

MMS

MMS

Relay 1

SV/GOOSE
MU

GOOSE

GOOSE-Only Network
All Relay-Relay Communication
GOOSE

Relay n
SV Network
(Optional GOOSE Trips/Status
SV/GOOSE
Sent to MU and Breaker
Input/Output)
MU

MMS

Relay 1

SV/GOOSE
MU

MMS

GOOSE
Relay n

SV/GOOSE
MU

figure 3. A dual redundant station and process bus architecture. HMI: human-machine interface; MMS: manufacturing
message specification; SCADA: supervisory control and data acquisition; SV: sampled value; MU: merging unit. (Source:
NYPA; used with permission.)
26	

ieee power & energy magazine	

march/april 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover4
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