IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 27

CTs and PTs. These signals are then digitized and transmitted via the process bus to other devices as sampled values (SVs). The merging unit is the interface between the
traditional analog signals and the digital protective relays
and other IEDs. As opposed to the publisher/subscriber
methodology used by the GOOSE and SV protocols, the
manufacturing message specification (MMS) protocol is
based on a client/server mechanism and typically used for
higher-level, one-to-one information exchanges, such as
those between a substation and a supervisory control and
data acquisition system.
There are currently three ongoing projects that look to
incorporate digital substation architectures into existing
transmission substations. The first implementation is the
switchyard automated monitoring and controls system being
installed at the 115-kV switchyard of the Robert Moses Saint
Lawrence Power Project, one of NYPA's major hydroelectric
plants. The project involves the implementation of a GOOSE
process bus and GOOSE messaging between relays as well
as MMS stations, while maintaining traditional hardwired
connections between the relay building and the switchyard
CTs and PTs. A second project, which has already been
commissioned and is operational, involves fiber-optic CT
installations and the implementation of an SV network at
the Fraser Annex substation, located in central New York.
The substation houses a series capacitor bank operating on
a 345-kV transmission corridor. Finally, work is currently
being done on a more comprehensive IEC 61850 project as
part of a major upgrade of a 115-kV substation in northern
New York. The project includes optical CT and PT installations for line protection relaying, the installation of field
merging units, and the implementation of SV and GOOSE
schemes in both process and station bus arrangements.
The digital substation offers the following advantages over a
conventional arrangement:
✔✔ easier and simpler installation (much less wiring)
✔✔ interoperability between devices made by different
manufacturers
✔✔ improved reliability
✔✔ improved measurement accuracy and recording of
information
✔✔ improved commissioning and operations
✔ ✔ easy incorporation of modern electronic CT and
PT sensors.

Wide-Area Deployment of PMUs
Initiated in 2016, the purpose of this project was to install
new PMUs that extend the system observability of the
-existing PMU network and also replace several vintage
devices installed in the early 1990s. These PMUs provide
valuable phasor data, which support the enhanced real-time
monitoring and operation of the grid and, when combined
with other analysis and control tools, help increase power
flows over existing interfaces, alleviate congestion, and
improve grid reliability.
march/april 2020	

Conventional techniques of operating and monitoring the
bulk grid have limited capabilities for real-time problem detection and failure prevention. This means that there would not
be enough time to react to fast-evolving events that threaten
the stability of the system. As a result, the bulk power grid
operates under conservative assumptions that do not allow for
operating the system based on its real-time dynamic limits,
resulting in congestion and inefficient asset utilization. This
becomes increasingly relevant and important as intermittent
resources are integrated into the grid, thus reducing the controllability and predictability of available generation. Also, as
more advanced and complex control schemes are embedded
into the grid (e.g., power electronic-based interconnections),
faster transient phenomena are expected to have a more profound effect on grid operations.
In a future hierarchically centralized and coordinated
grid operation and control scenario, one can envision that
sufficient, synchronized, low-latency, and trustable (cybersecure) data (including breaker status or network topology
data) with adequate sampling rates will be widely available
at the operations/control center and the state estimator (the
backbone of all energy management system applications)
will run with a superior performance in the subsecond evencycles timeframe, providing full knowledge of the system
state. This full-state knowledge enables very fast contingency ranking and security analysis and control action
determination, providing timely advice to the system operator under both normal and emergency conditions. In the long
run, as confidence is built, some of these control actions
may be performed automatically via direct feedback from
the operations/control center. For additional grid flexibility,
ultimately, such closed-loop automated capabilities will be
indispensable for operating power systems more reliably,
safely, and efficiently, especially in dealing with fast power
system phenomena and zero- or low-inertia, inverter-based
generation resources.
The phasor data captured during grid disturbances will
also be used to perform system model validation for NERC
regulatory compliance. Per NERC compliance requirements,
generator owners must periodically validate the dynamic
models of large generating units. This can be performed via
offline tests or by utilizing captured PMU data during system disturbances. Offline, manual validation is costly, more
tedious to perform, and requires units to be taken out of service, whereas automatic validation using PMU data will be
more efficient and cost-effective.

Fleet-Wide Deployment
of Smart Sensors
As a major part of its digitization initiative, NYPA is currently deploying additional sensors to collect data from
power plant equipment, substation apparatus, and transmission lines to enhance efficiency and extend the life of those
assets by continuously assessing their performance and
condition status. A full suite of sensors is being installed on
ieee power & energy magazine 	

27



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070820
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050620
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030420
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com