IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 41

as depicted in Figure 11(c) and (d), in which T1 denotes the
thermocouple between the steel core and the first layer of
conductor wires, while T2 and T3 denote the thermocouples
between the other layers of conductor wires [see Figure 11(d)].
Thermocouples are traditionally installed in holes radially
drilled in the cable after its manufacture. However, the novelty of this experimental procedure is that the thermocouples'
wires were wound together with the conductor layers, providing more accurate and reliable temperature measurements.
ACSR is the most common conductor used in Brazilian
transmission lines. The presence of the steel core causes a
redistribution of the current density in the aluminum layers,
known as the transformer effect. The experimental results
show how this current redistribution affects the radial temperature distribution at the beginning of the thermal process.

The measurements also demonstrate how the temperature
gradient affects the current density distribution once the steadystate temperature is achieved.
The measurements show the increase in current density
concentration in the middle layer with total current value,
due to the transformer effect, as illustrated in Figure 12(a)
and (b). This EM behavior has significant influence on the
transient temperature distribution. Figure 12(c) shows the
temperature measurements of thermocouples T1, T2, and T3
when a high current was suddenly raised from 350 to 2000 A.
After 2 min at 2,000 A, the current was again reduced to
350 A. An enlargement of this figure during the period when
the temperature variations were greater is presented in Figure 12(d), which reveals a very interesting effect resulting
from the nonuniform current density in the conductor region.

Middle Layer
Inner Layer
Middle Layer
Outer Layer

1,200 A

4.2
Current Density (A /mm2)

Current Density (A /mm2)

4

3.5
1,000 A
3
800 A
2.5

4
Outer Layer
Inner
Layer

3.8

3.6
2,000

4,000
Time (s)

6,000

0

10

(a)

20
30
Conducting Wire

40

50

(b)
80

T1
T2
T3

60

T1
T2
T3

70
Temperature (°C)

Temperature (°C)

70

50
40

60

50

40

30
0

5,000

10,000
Time (s)
(c)

15,000

20,000

14,200

14,300
Time (s)
(d)

14,400

figure 12. The EM and thermal results from ACSR conductor tests. (a) The current density in the three conductor layers.
(b) The current density in each of the 54 conductors with 1,200 A. (c) The temperature rise when a high current is applied.
(d) The distribution of radial temperature [detail from (c)].
march/april 2020	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

41



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover4
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