IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 42

The general assumption that high-generation periods
are necessarily associated with high wind velocities
must be properly verified in practice.
In Figure 12(d), the highest temperatures are generally for
thermocouple T2, which is between the internal and middle
conductor layers.
One of the major findings from the EM measurements
is the redistribution of current between the inner and outer
layers [see Figure 12(a)] after the steady-state temperature
is achieved. As an effect of the radial temperature gradient,
which is relevant for higher currents, the increase of the electrical resistance of the inner layer tends to be higher than that
of the outer layer. This causes the current density in the inner
layer to decrease and to increase in the outer layer, as shown in
Figure 12(a) for the cases in which the total current applied is
higher than 800 A.
Thermal and EM characterizations of experimental measurements are very useful for improving mathematical models for line conductors under atypical operational conditions.
In particular, sophisticated simulation models are important
when considering new technologies designed to the increase
the current capacity, that is, DLR. In this scenario, the measurements can support a more accurate prediction of the
thermal and electrical behaviors of the conductors. As the
measurements also showed, steel core cables need special
attention when high currents are applied. The transformer
effect states that, with an odd number of aluminum layers,
the resulting alternating longitudinal magnetic flux in the
steel core is significant and causes power loss, due to hysteresis and eddy currents, and a redistribution of the current
density in the aluminum layers, as verified by the experimental results.
However, some design features could reduce the impact
of the increasing ac resistance due to the transformer effect.
For instance, a greater cross-sectional area of the middle
layer or even avoiding conductors with an odd number of
aluminum layers could be used. An even number of aluminum layers partially or totally cancels the magnetic field
in the steel core. Likewise, for the construction of new
transmission lines, the implications of the presence of the
steel core should be considered, especially for conductors
designed to operate at high temperatures without losing
their mechanical properties, that is, conductors with high
current-carrying capacity, such as the aluminum conductor
steel-supported conductor.

Acknowledgments
We acknowledge the Companhia Elétrica do Rio São Francisco and Furnas Centrais Elétricas, original supporters of
the high SIL R&D.
42	

ieee power & energy magazine	

For Further Reading
J. C. Salari, "Optimization of bundle geometry in transmission lines (in Portuguese)," M. Sc. thesis, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil, Apr. 1993.
F. C. Dart, C. K. C. Arruda, R. W. Garcia, and O. Regis,
Jr., "High capacity AC transmission lines-The Brazilian
experience," in Proc. Cigré/IEC Symp., Cape Town, South
Africa, 2015, pp. 1-8.
F. M. A. Salas, H. R. B. Orlande, and L. A. M. C. Domingues,
"Parameter estimation in heat transfer through an overhead
power cable by using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method,"
High Temp. High Press. J., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 317-336, 2015.
J. S. Barrett, O. Nigol, C. J. Fehervari, and R. D. Findlay,
"A new model of AC resistance in ACSR conductors," IEEE
Trans. Power Del., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 198-208, Apr. 1986. doi:
10.1109/TPWRD.1986.4307951.
O. Régis, Jr and L. A. M. C. Domingues, "Increasing the
transfer capacity of overhead lines on the connection of wind
power plants, through correlation between climatic data and
temperature of conductors at higher currents," in Proc. Cigré
Session, Paris, France, Ref. B2-102, pp. 1-9, 2016.
S. Uski-Joutsenvuo and R. Pasonen, "Maximising power
line transmission capability by employing dynamic line ratings-Technical survey and applicability in Finland," Res.
Rep., VTT, Espoo, Finland, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://
sgemfinalreport.fi/files/D5.1.55%20-%20Dynamic%20
line%20rating.pdf
L. E. Reis and J. C. Salari, "A methodology for insulation coordination for overhead transmission line design," in
Proc. XIV SEPOPE, Recife, Brazil, Sept. 2018.
M. Ghassemi, "High surge impedance loading (HSIL)
lines: A review identifying opportunities, challenges, and future research needs," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 34, no. 5,
pp. 1909-1924, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.2019.2910210.

Biographies
Carlos Kleber Arruda is with Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Luís Adriano M.C. Domingues is with Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Arthur Linhares Esteves dos Reis is with Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Farith Mustafa Absi Salas is with Centro de Pesquisas
de Energia Elétrica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
João Clavio Salari is with Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
p&e

march/april 2020


http://sgemfinalreport.fi/files/D5.1.55%20-%20Dynamic%20line%20rating.pdf http://sgemfinalreport.fi/files/D5.1.55%20-%20Dynamic%20line%20rating.pdf http://sgemfinalreport.fi/files/D5.1.55%20-%20Dynamic%20line%20rating.pdf

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