IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 59

International standards leverage best practices and
experience by sharing the limitations of and lessons
learned about UHV ac transmission technologies.
operation, and control. Analysis can be performed on field measurements of switching, lightning, resonance, and load-shedding overvoltages; short circuit currents; and capacitor/reactor/
line switching operations. The success of a pilot-project builds
experience and confidence to pursue commercial operation of
additional UHV ac projects.
Standard equipment is strongly suggested to ensure that
technologies and operational experience may be leveraged by
multiple UHV ac projects. For example, a 1,000-kV transformer at the same rating of 3,000/3,000/1,000 MVA is commonly used in different UHV ac substations and switching
stations. In the Southeast Jin-Nanyang-Jingmen project,
the same 720-Mvar, 1,000-kV HV shunt reactor is installed
at each side of the Changzhi-Nanyang and Nanyang-
Jingmen line segments. Two HV shunt reactors of a similar design with the same voltage rating and Mvar capacity
(720 Mvar) are installed in the Huainan and Anji substations
in the Huainan-Shanghai project. Using standard equipment
reduces the required inventory of spare parts and manufacturing cost. Operating with standard equipment also enables
utilities to gain more design, installation, maintenance, and
operation experience.
A digital real-time simulation system with electromechanical transient and EMT-simulation capabilities and test facilities
helps researchers and engineers to understand the characteristics of UHV ac equipment individually and systematically.
The characteristics of UHV ac equipment and systems are not
always well understood. It is difficult to prove that UHV ac
equipment will behave in a certain way mathematically, and
it is extremely challenging, if not impossible, to pinpoint all
parameters through theoretical calculations. Simulation systems and test facilities are indispensable for UHV ac transmission-system design, planning, and operation.
A next-generation EMS with powerful computing performance is crucial for a highly interconnected, large, and
complex UHV network. Delayed responses to UHV-network
contingency events have significant negative impacts on system security and stability. Smart situational awareness, fast
system analysis, and quick control response help to avoid
cascading outages and power blackouts.
International standards leverage best practices and experience by sharing the limitations of and lessons learned about
UHV ac transmission technologies. Standards enable effective communication for building new UHV ac transmission
projects. After many years of effort by researchers and engineers worldwide, several international UHV transmissionline standards have been established.
march/april 2020	

UHV ac transmission lines possess many advantages, providing an effective but expensive solution that incorporates
state-of-art technologies in many scenarios. The EM-environment requirements require an enlarged wire space, which increases the line reactance, necessitating a large shunt-capacitor
bank for compensation. To suppress the corona, 1,000-kV transmission lines adopt eight-bundle conductors that have a large
wire cross-sectional area. Compared with the four-bundle
conductors for 500-kV transmission lines, 1,000-kV transmission lines consume more wire at a higher cost. State-of-the-art
generator-insulation levels lag behind the development of UHV
ac transmission-line technology. Voltage-transformation ladders
are required to connect a generator to a 1,000kV bus.
Although crucial milestones in UHV ac transmission
technology and project development have been reached,
there is still a long way to go. Researchers and engineers are
dedicated to improving UHV transmission technologies to
make the power system stronger and smarter.

For Further Reading
Z. Liu, Ultra-High Voltage AC/DC Grids. Waltham, MA:
Academic, 2014.
S. Zhusen et al., "Application and dissemination of steel
tubular tower in transmission lines," Power System -Technol.,
vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 186-192, 2010.
G. Li, B. Li, J. Li, and Z. Zhao, "Research and development
of UHV AC transformer and shunt reactor," Eur. Trans. Elect.
Power, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 49-59, 2012. doi: 10.1002/etep.559.
X. Wang, B. Jiao, G. Li, Y. Liu, X. Li, and S. Wu, "Development and application of 1000 kV standard voltage transformer for field test," High Voltage Technol., vol. 35, no. 6,
pp. 1254-1259, 2009.
Y. Hu, B. Wan, and H. He, "Key technologies of 1000 kV
AC compact transmission," High Voltage Technol., vol. 37,
no. 8, pp. 1825-1831, 2011.
IEEE Recommended Practice for Overvoltage and Insulation Coordination of Transmission Systems at 1,000 kV
AC and Above, IEEE Standard 1862, 2014.

Biographies
Renchang Dai is with the Global Energy Interconnection
Research Institute North America, San Jose, California.
Guangyi Liu is with the Global Energy Interconnection
Research Institute North America, San Jose, California.
Xing Zhang is with China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing.
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Contents
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