IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 61

system is desired as a virtual digital
twin of an actual power grid for power
system research and study. In this way,
research on power system monitoring,
modeling, control, and actuation can
be carried out in a closed-loop integrated environment with high modeling fidelity and flexibility.
Researchers have approached such
an integrated environment using one of
two approaches. The first is a loosely
integrated approach of cosimulation
where different software modules are
essentially independent, for example,
the Hierarchical Engine for Largescale Infrastructure Co-Simulation.
Such an approach has the advantage of simplifying development and
allows researchers to glue together
sophisticated models without complete
domain knowledge of the underlying
simulators. The disadvantage is that
simply piecing together these modules
may neglect some of the interactions,
and the assumptions across modules
may not be consistent or valid in the
applied domain. The second approach
is to fully integrate the different models
and use sophisticated numerical and
software environments (i.e., the Open
iTesla Power System Library). The
disadvantage is that this requires the
researcher to be familiar with all of the
underlying models or work in larger
teams where all of the needed expertise
is available. Therefore, a compromise
approach is taken using independent
software modules that are restricted to
support a common research objective,
namely closed-loop, real-time controls.
ŠISTOCKPHOTO.COM/LEOWOLFERT
With this motivation, the largescale testbed (LTB) has been developed by the team at the Center for
Ultra-Wide-Area
Resilient
Electric Energy Transmission
For instance, in the scenario of testing real-time transmission
control algorithms, a dynamic simulation tool will be used to Networks (CURENT), a U.S. National Science Foundation
produce mock measurement data, which will be fed into other (NSF) engineering research center jointly supported by the
software tools as control inputs. Then, the output from such NSF and the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE). This plata control module will be fed back to the dynamic simulator. form aims to be a virtual grid or digital twin of a real power
During this process, either manual efforts or glue scripts are grid such that researchers can obtain simulated yet realistic
required by the researcher to facilitate the closed-loop inter- real-time data or measurements, test control algorithms in
action. To fully test a new approach, one needs to consider real time, and observe grid response to these controllers. It
essential constraints beyond the basic control algorithm, such targets large-scale power grid models of thousands of buses
as communication architecture and bandwidth measurement with new power system components, i.e., wind generators,
performance. Therefore, a fully automated, integrated, and solar photovoltaic panels, energy storage, and multitermiclosed-loop platform with a comprehensive modeling of the nal high-voltage dc (HVdc) networks. Conventional control
march/april 2020

ieee power & energy magazine

61


http://www.ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/LEOWOLFERT

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 6
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 85
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 91
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover4
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