IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 64

The LTB strives to represent the data exchange structure
in real systems for operation and control by designing
the data flow between the decoupled modules.
the other one is referred to as the downstream module. There
is one data server along with multiple clients in the distributed
messaging environment, an example of which can be found in
Figure 3(a). The data server runs as a process, which binds to a
socket using the transmission control protocol or interprocess
communication, and manages the client connections and data
delivery. Data clients are imported as APIs by modules for
connecting to the server, pulling in and sending out real-time
data as explained in Figure 3(b). Note that the server and clients provide only channels for communications, while it is left
to the modules to specify the data formats for data exchange.

Data Flow and Program Workflow
The LTB strives to represent the data exchange structure in
real systems for operation and control by designing the data

flow between the decoupled modules. The implemented data
flow shown in Figure 4 has the following main paths:
✔✔ The flow begins from static data files defining the test
systems and scenarios.
✔✔ The simulator exchanges data with the substation simulators, namely, sensors and automation devices.
✔✔ Measurement data (with realistic errors and delays)
flows from sensors to the EMS and control system.
✔✔ Some data, such as the estimated state, also flow from
the EMS to the control system.
✔✔ Both set-point signals and control signals flow back to
automation devices to close the loop.
The LTB relies on the APIs of the distributed messaging server and client for implementing the data flow. The
APIs provided by the client allow the module to manage

Transparent to the User
Module B
API for
Module A

Module A

Distributed
Messaging
Client

Distributed
Messaging
Client

API for
Module B

Distributed
Messaging
Client

API for
Module C

Distributed
Messaging Server

Module C
(a)

(b)

figure 3. A distributed messaging environment: (a) an example of logical data streaming between three modules and
(b) the actual implementation of the three-module data streaming using the distributed messaging server and client APIs.

Visualization

Model Parameters
Simulation
Data
Power System
Simulator
Data Files for
Systems and
Scenarios

Actuation
Signals

EMS

Measurement
Data
Set Point
Signals

Sensors
Automation
Devices

Model Parameters

Updated
Data Files

Historian and
Archiving
Control
Signals

Control System

figure 4. An illustration of the data flow for systemic closed-loop testing.
64	

ieee power & energy magazine	

march/april 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover4
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