IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 67

The future plan also includes integration
with a hardware testbed to achieve the
hardware-in-the-loop capability.
system without WADC and with the full allocation of WADC at
different snapshots are illustrated in Figure 6, with the screenshots taken in a full oscillation cycle starting at 10.73 s. (See
"LTB Demo: Dynamic Damping Control Allocation Using
Wind Generation" in the "For Further Reading" section.) The
visualization is colored based on the top scale, coloring the
frequency in a range between red and blue with the nominal
frequency being transparent. A severe frequency variation can
be observed in the case without the WADC, compared with the
steady frequency with full control allocation.

Effectiveness of Dynamic Control Allocation
In the event of actuator unavailability or failure, the supervisory modal-based control allocation algorithm will reallocate the damping control signal to the available actuators.
The same WECC system is simulated with 50% of all wind
generators available. Figures 7 and 8 compare the bus frequency deviation and tie-line flow for two scenarios:
1)	 a no wide-area damping control scenario
2)	 a wide-area damping control scenario with 50% of
wind actuators.
The improved damping can be observed for the scenario
with WADC [Figures 7(b) and 8(b)] as opposed to the scenario with no wide-area damping control [Figures 7(a) 8(a)].

0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.10
-0.15

East Region
South Region

5

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35

40

It is worth noting that all visualization and plots are created using the LTB-Web visualization tool. LTB-Web provides a visual tool for researchers to verify effectiveness,
identify challenges, and even motivate them to explore new
solutions to the observed power system problems.

Summary and Future Work
The LTB provides an integrated platform as a virtual
power grid to validate and verify closed-loop control
technologies. The decoupled software architecture in
which the decoupled modules are tied together by distributed messaging achieved a balance between system
modeling complexity and test fidelity. The LTB also
serves as a driver of research since it allows fast prototyping of new models and grid infrastructures, direct
access to simulation and measurement data, and instant
feedback of the wide-area control signals. In addition, a virtual control room has been established in the
CURENT research center as the facility to demonstrate
the LTB, as shown in Figure 9. Thus, the LTB serves
as a critical component to the success of various realtime control research studies for the power grid and is
promising to advance the research community in electric power systems, including the implementation and

1,500
1,400
1,300
1,200
1,100
1,000
900

Active Power

5

45

10

15

0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0
-0.05
-0.10

East Region
South Region

5

10

15

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25

30

35

40

45

(b)

figure 7. The frequency deviation (hertz, from 60 Hz) on
buses in the east and south regions: the scenario (a) without
wide-area damping control and (b) with wide-area damping control using wind farms as actuators.
march/april 2020	

20

25

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35

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45

(a)

(a)

1,500
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1,300
1,200
1,100
1,000
900
800

Active Power

5

10

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20

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(b)

figure 8. The active power tie-line flow between the east
and the south regions of WECC: the scenario (a) without
wide-area damping control and (b) with wide-area damping control using wind farms as actuators.
ieee power & energy magazine 	

67



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover3
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