IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 70

industry. Although significant theoretical research has been
conducted on this concept using look-ahead optimization
with an assumption of perfect foresight on the variables of
interest (e.g., electricity price, load, and renewable power
generation), utilities do not yet have enough confidence in
its practicality. Uncertainties pertaining to market-driven
parameters add to the complexity of optimal ESS operation, which adheres to the constraints associated with the
technoeconomic requirements of multiple stakeholders of
a given portfolio of ESS assets. Making strategic decisions
over control approaches (e.g., rule based versus optimal)
and implementation options (e.g., building from scratch
versus customizing off-the-shelf products) that consider the
tradeoffs associated with usefulness, simplicity, and future
expansion is, therefore, not a trivial task. Utilities considering the inclusion of ESSs into their asset portfolio could benefit significantly from lessons gleaned from demonstration
projects that dealt with such issues.
This article reports on a transformative project aimed
at enhancing the control capabilities of a Portland General
Electric (PGE)-owned 5-MW/1.25-MWh ESS located at the
Salem Smart Power Center (SSPC) in Oregon toward achieving better technoeconomic benefits. The steps used for developing a value-driven control capability are illustrated, starting
from the evaluation of economic opportunities that drove the
coordination of multiple services to be delivered by an ESS to
implementation and testing. The lessons learned during critical processes are identified for the benefit of the ESS industry.

SSPC Energy Storage System
Background
SSPC was originally a part of the Pacific Northwest Smart
Grid Demonstration Project (PNWSGDP), which was

Vault

launched in 2010 as a five-year program partially funded by
the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Program participants
included Bonneville Power Administration, 11 utilities from
five states from the Pacific Northwest region (Washington,
Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming), and six technology
partners. PGE, an investor-owned utility, was a participant
in the PNWSGDP program that cosponsored the SSPC project-an 8,000-square foot test and demonstration facility at
the utility's Oxford substation in Salem. This facility's staff
developed a smart grid platform to integrate residential and
commercial demand response assets; grid-connected, commercial-dispatchable standby generation; grid-connected
battery storage; distributed switching; and a commercial
microgrid. DoE funding in 2010 covered 50% of the cost
of this US$25 million effort, and the remaining 50% was
equally shared by the utility (US$6.5 million) and its principal technology partners Enerdel, Eaton, and Alstom.

System Description
The lithium-ion ESS is composed of 20 modular energy storage racks organized into five blocks, with each containing
four racks. Each rack consists of 18 small drawer-type units
with four battery modules, for a total of 1,440 modules in the
system. Each battery module contains 12 series-connected
lithium-ion cells, for a total of 48 series-connected cells in a
drawer unit. The organization of the cells, modules, and racks
in a battery block is shown in Figure 1. A battery string is
composed of three drawers in series and operates at approximately 600 Vdc. The lithium-ion cells in the battery modules
are rated at 3,000 charge-discharge cycles. A programmable
logic controller (PLC)-based battery management system
(BMS) performs battery monitoring functions only; control
is accomplished by a separate PLC-based control system.

Rack

Cells in a
Module

Drawer
Unit

Four Modules in
a Drawer Unit

Blocks

figure 1. The organization of cells, modules, vaults, and racks in an ESS block.
70	

ieee power & energy magazine	

march/april 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - Cover4
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