IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020 - 71

The inverters provide full four-quadrant operation with the capability
to import and export real and reactive power, which offers the
opportunity to deploy the ESS for various ancillary services.
Each rack of battery modules feeds a bank of 2 × 125-kVA
inverters, shown in Figure 2(a), which makes the output of a
single block consisting of four racks equivalent to 1 MVA.
Hence, five blocks of battery modules feeding a total of 20
banks of 2 × 125-kVA inverters result in a system output of
5 MVA. The inverters provide full four-quadrant operation
with the capability to import and export real and reactive
power, which offers the opportunity to deploy the ESS for
various ancillary services.

Control Capability Expansion of SSPC
The control of ESSs for an electric utility could take two
different perspectives, as illustrated in Figure 3. One is for
the maximization of the ESS's economic benefit as a local
asset connected to a local feeder or within a small part of the
utility's network, and the other is to utilize the ESS as a part

Deployed Control System at the SSPC Site
The ESS is controlled by a PLC-based control system, which
is depicted in Figure 2(b). The control system creates an
interface among the inverters, power meters, the BMS, and
the upstream system controls that operate the ESS in a variety of modes according to the utility's specification and intelligently coordinates the operation of the inverters to balance
demand among the battery blocks.

Evolution of Use Cases
As a part of the PNWSGDP, the SSPC ESS was required
to demonstrate the capabilities needed to perform a set
of use cases relevant to the program goals. Although the
overall PNWSGDP was completed by the end of January
(a)
(b)
2015, it was decided to continue using the SSPC facility
consistent with the program's original purpose and simul- figure 2. An ESS control system: the (a) two-times power
taneously optimize its value to its customers as a grid- expert inverter banks and (b) PLC-based control system.
integrated asset. A pool of 15
use cases involving the ESS and
other SSPC assets was created by
Operational
System-Level
Asset Economic
the utility covering transactive
Data and Models
Economic Dispatch
Evaluation
energy, energy shifting, demand
response, ancillary services, distribution automation, and emerSystem Operation Platform
gency/backup/reliability services.
Minimize System Operation Cost
Over the course of time, some of the
use cases were discontinued due
to technical reasons or diminishing importance.
Site Controller/Local Resource Optimizer
For the control system expanMaximize Asset Economic Benefit
sion project, use cases were revisited and evaluated in the context
of current economic opportunities. This economic evaluation
SSPC ESS
was the basis for the control system expansion process described
in the following section.
figure 3. ESS control and coordination framework perspectives.
march/april 2020	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

71



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - March/April 2020

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